Michael Kinsbergen

Michael Kinsbergen (Amsterdam, 10 november 1958) was algemeen directeur van onder meer AFC Ajax NV.

Kinsbergen werd in 1958 geboren in Amsterdam en groeide op in Buitenveldert. Tussen 1977 en 1984 studeerde hij aan respectievelijk de California State University (Long Beach), de University of California (UCLA) en de University of Pennsylvania running belt with water bottle holder, waar hij zijn Master of Business Administration (MBA) behaalde

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. In de VS raakte hij bevriend met Johan Cruijff, die van 1979 tot 1980 speelde bij de Los Angeles Aztecs. Na zijn studie keerde hij terug naar Nederland, waar hij tussen 1986 en 1996 diverse functies bekleedde in het bankwezen, onder meer bij Pierson, Heldring & Pierson. Hierna was hij korte tijd zelfstandig ondernemer, en vervolgens tussen 2000 en 2010 CEO van Nedstat.

In 2012 werd Kinsbergen algemeen directeur bij AFC Ajax NV. Ajax had toen geen algemeen directeur, omdat de rechter de benoeming van interim-directeur Martin Sturkenboom en diens opvolger Louis van Gaal vernietigd had.

Kinsbergen werkte in zijn nieuwe functie nauw samen met marketing directeur Edwin van der Sar. Het was de bedoeling dat Kinsbergen Van der Sar zou inwerken opdat deze laatste in 2015 de rol van algemeen directeur op zich zou kunnen nemen. Hoewel Van der Sar begin 2015 aangaf de samenwerking met Kinsbergen graag langer te willen voortzetten. besloot de Raad van Commissarissen van Ajax hier niet op in te gaan. Kinsbergen verliet vervolgens de club en kreeg niet direct een opvolger.

HC Lev Prag

Der HC Lev Prag (HC Lev Praha) war ein 2010 als HC Lev Hradec Králové gegründeter Eishockeyklub, der kurz nach seiner Gründung in die slowakische Stadt Poprad übersiedelte. Zur Saison 2011/12 nahm der Klub den Spielbetrieb in der Kontinentalen Hockey-Liga auf. Im Frühjahr 2012 wurde der Klub von Poprad in die tschechische Hauptstadt Prag übersiedelt. In der Saison 2013/14 gewann der Verein in der KHL die Vizemeisterschaft. Anschließend musste sich der Verein jedoch wegen finanzieller Probleme aus der Liga zurückziehen. Die Heimspiele des Klubs wurden in der Tipsport Arena ausgetragen.

Nachdem Verhandlungen über den Beitritt in die Kontinentale Hockey-Liga zwischen dem tschechischen Eishockeyverband und dem HC Lev Hradec Králové gescheitert waren, entschied sich das Management des Vereins, das Team nach Poprad, Slowakei, umzusiedeln, wo es ab der Saison 2010/11 unter dem Namen HC Lev Poprad an der KHL teilnehmen sollte. Das Team wurde für seine Premieren-Spielzeit in die Bobrow Division eingeteilt.

Am 28. Juli gab die KHL bekannt, dass der HC Lev aufgrund fehlender Genehmigungen durch den slowakischen Eishockeyverband SZLH nicht für den Spielbetrieb der Saison 2010/11 zugelassen würde. Im Mai 2011 wurde der Club in die KHL aufgenommen und nahm zur Saison 2011/12 den Spielbetrieb auf.

Im Frühjahr 2012 wurde der Klub von Poprad in die tschechische Hauptstadt Prag übersiedelt, nachdem ein Abkommen über Ausbildungsentschädigungen mit den tschechischen Eishockeyclubs unterzeichnet worden war. Neue Spielstätte war die Tipsport Arena, die sich der HC Lev mit dem HC Sparta Prag teilt. Als neues Trainerduo wurden Josef Jandač und Jiří Kalous verpflichtet.

Am 6. September 2012 erfolgte das Bully zum ersten KHL-Spiel von Lev Prag. Dabei wurde in der Prager Tipsport Arena Dinamo Riga mit 2:1 besiegt. Das erste KHL-Tor des HC Lev Prag erzielte der Slowake Ľuboš Bartečko. Am 9. Oktober 2012 stellte der HC Lev Prag einen neuen KHL-Zuschauerrekord auf, als die Mannschaft in der O₂ Arena vor 16.317 Zuschauern dem OHK Dynamo durch ein Tor von Alexander Owetschkin mit 0:1 unterlag. Ursprünglich plante Lev alle Spiele in der O₂ Arena zu absolvieren, jedoch scheiterten Verhandlungen mit dem Arena-Management. Schließlich einigte man sich auf vier Termine für die Premierenspielzeit des HC Lev.

Nach einer Niederlagenserie im Oktober 2012 wurde Josef Jandač entlassen und Jiří Kalous übernahm vorübergehend das Traineramt lint razor. Zwei Wochen später tauschte Jandač die Position mit Václav Sýkora, der bis dahin den HC Sparta trainiert hatte und nun neuer Cheftrainer des HC Lev wurde. Letztlich wurde die Saison als Siebter der West-Konferenz abgeschlossen. Allerdings scheiterte der HC Lev direkt in der ersten Playoff-Runde an HK ZSKA Moskau. In der folgenden Saison 2013/14 konnte der HC Lev als erster nicht-russischer KHL-Verein das Finale um den Gagarin-Pokal erreichen. In der langen Finalserie konnte sich erst im siebten Spiel der HK Metallurg Magnitogorsk durchsetzen.

Nach der erfolgreichen Saison 2013/14 hatten die beiden Haupteigner des Teams, die tschechische ČKD Group und das russisch-schweizerische Unternehmen A-Energy, erhebliche Probleme, das Budget für die Folgesaison abzusichern. Dies lag vor allem an einer strategischen Neuausrichtung des Energiekonzerns Gazprom, der mit beiden Eignern kooperiert, und an der Beendigung der Ausschreibung für den Ausbau des tschechischen Kernkraftwerks in Temelín, für das sich das tschechisch-russische Konsortium MRI beworben hatte. Am 1. Juli 2014 gab der Klub die Beendigung des Spielbetriebs und die Auflösung des Unternehmens bekannt. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt hatte der Klub noch 13 Spieler unter Vertrag.

Gosforth Junior High Academy

Gosforth Junior High Academy, formerly known as Gosforth West Middle School is a middle school in Gosforth, Newcastle upon Tyne, England. It is the Junior School of Gosforth Academy.

It is one of three middle schools where students usually transfer to Gosforth Academy. The school is in the West Gosforth electoral ward. It is one of Newcastle’s “Special Educational Needs” centres for Visual Impairment, along with Regent Farm First School and Gosforth Academy.

The school started in 1937, as Gosforth Senior Council School, with separate Boys and Girls Departments.

The school changed into a Secondary Modern School in 1944

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, due to the Education Act 1944. The school name became Gosforth County Modern School / Gosforth County Secondary School.

The school became Gosforth West Middle School, when Northumberland County Council changed to the Three-tier education system in 1973.

By March 2005, Gosforth West was experiencing some problems and was placed under “Special Measures” by Ofsted. In July 2006 the school had vastly improved and was removed from special measures.

In September 2005, Kathryn Thomas (seconded from Gosforth High School) became the schools Acting Headteacher, replacing Paul Hugall. David Sheppard (also seconded from Gosforth High School) became Assistant Headteacher.

In September 2006 Waterproof Phone Bag, Gosforth High took over the administration duties of Gosforth West Middle School, in a Federation style agreement. The federation came into action on 1 January 2007. Gosforth West was also renamed as Gosforth Junior High School after the Easter break. The uniform was set to change in September 2007, this included the removal of the tie from the uniform. The PRAISE Code which was introduced at the High School is also in practice at the Junior High School. In March 2009 planning applications to create a new school building were accepted, and later that year building work commenced.

By 2011 the school had become an Academy along with the High School, now Gosforth Academy.

As of 2011 Gosforth Junior High is using a new building; this followed East and Central’s moves to new facilities. Previously the school had been using the 1930s building as well as some temporary buildings, and the new building was a part of the “Building Schools for the Future” Initiative. A new building is currently being developed.

Gosforth Junior High had concrete tennis courts custom soccer t shirts, until in around 2003 the area of land on which it was situated, was used for an additional building for Archibald First School.

On 6 June 2007, David Bellamy opened the school’s re-built wildlife garden, in one of the buildings’ quadrangles, which has had contributions from local organisations, such as Northern Rock, The Gosforth Round Table and the school’s pupils.

A planning application which was submitted on 18 December 2008 by AURA Ltd, a local education partnership company in which the council has a 10% share, was conditionally granted on 20 March 2009. This application was for the “Erection of two storey school (Class D1) with associated outdoor play areas and 2 hard surfaced games courts, 114 space car park with access and egress onto Regent Avenue, covered cycle parking, pedestrian access onto Jubilee Road and hard and soft landscaping”. Building work began in November 2009 and the new school buildings were in use by September 2011.

Gosforth Junior High was inspected by Ofsted in June 2008, and they remarked that it “is a good and improving school with outstanding features.” Other remarks Ofsted had were “The outstanding leadership of the federation, principal and senior managers is continuing to steer the school in the right direction.” and The quality of teaching and learning is good and some is outstanding.”

The KS2 SATs results score by year are listed below:

G.O.Y.A. (Gunz Or Yay Available)

G.O.Y.A. (Gunz Or Yay Available) is the third studio album by American rapper Termanology, released on October 8, 2013, through his own record label, ST. Records, Statik Selektah’s Showoff Records, and Boston based label Brick Records.

The album includes guest appearances from Action Bronson, Chris Rivers, Dice Raw, DJ Kay Slay, DJ Premier, Doo Wop, Ea$y Money, H Blanco, Inspectah Deck, Juju, Lee Wilson, Lil Fame, Maffew Ragazino, N.O.R.E., Reks, Sheek Louch, Sway Calloway how to use meat tenderizer, Tony Touch and Wais P. The album is mostly produced by Shortfyuz.

On July 25, 2013, the first single from the album canteen water bottle, “Straight Off The Block” featuring DJ Kay Slay, Sheek Louch & Lil Fame, was released. The official music video for the single was released on October 11, 2013. On August 22, 2013, he released the second single “100 More Jewelz”. On September 10, 2013 running fuel belt reviews, he released the third single “Judo” featuring N.O.R.E.. The official music video for the single was released on September 18, 2013. On September 26, 2013, he released the fourth single “You Ain’t Safe”. On October 8 plastic water bottles reusable, 2013, he released the fifth and final single “Take My Turn”.

Gruppo Sportivo Armando Casalini

Il Gruppo Sportivo Armando Casalini è stata una società polisportiva bresciana fondata nel 1928 e intitolata al deputato fascista Armando Casalini, assassinato nel 1924. Aveva sede a Brescia in via Trento n.37 e poi in via Trieste n.10. Comprendeva una sezione calcistica, una ciclistica, una atletica e una bocciofila.

L’attività principale fu sicuramente quella calcistica: la squadra bresciana, caratterizzata dalle casacche verdi, utilizzava un campo di gioco nella zona di porta Trento, in via Montesuello. Nell’ultimo anno di attività utilizzò invece lo Stadium comunale in alternanza con il Brescia Calcio.

È stata nel periodo compreso tra le due guerre la seconda squadra calcistica per importanza della provincia di Brescia. Al tempo erano famosi gli infuocati derby con la terza società cittadina: la Trivellini, intitolata all’ex calciatore del Brescia Luigi Trivellini, deceduto nella prima guerra mondiale.

Nel 1928, primo anno di attività, la Casalini ottenne un significativo secondo posto nella coppa Sorlini.

Nel 1929 conquistò la coppa Ferrari e l’anno successivo ottenne il secondo posto nella coppa del Popolo di Brescia.

Nel 1931 si piazzò al terzo posto nel campionato provinciale U.L.I.C. Bresciano e vinse la coppa della Canicola (una “classica” giocata a 6 giocatori).

Nel 1932 conquistò il titolo Bresciano di 1.a Categoria U.L.I.C. e lo stesso anno anche il titolo di Campione Lombardo di 1.a Categoria battendo allo spareggio del 7 agosto 1932 a Milano sul campo del Dopolavoro Ferroviario 5-1 la Ardita di Busto Arsizio.

Le migliori stagioni furono quelle a partire dal 1936-1937, quando vinse il campionato Bresciano della Sezione Propaganda e successivamente si iscrisse in Prima Divisione Lombarda

La stagione successiva, il 1937-1938, vinse il suo girone accedendo alle finali, assieme a Como, Bareggio e Codogno. Con il bilancio di tre vittorie e tre pareggi vinse anche il girone finale e venne promossa in Serie C con il Como bpa free glasses.

In Serie C militò per tre stagioni, dalla stagione 1938-39 alla stagione 1940-41.

Nel primo campionato sfiorò la promozione in Serie B: a sei giornate dal termine raggiunse la testa della classifica dopo un lungo inseguimento, mettendo assieme undici partite utili consecutive. Perse lo scontro diretto con la Cremonese e alla penultima giornata anche quello con la Falck di Sesto San Giovanni, che la superarono in classifica. La squadra si piazzò al quarto posto, a soli quattro punti dalla Reggiana poi promossa in Serie B, suo miglior piazzamento di sempre.

Negli anni successivi continuò a farsi onore piazzandosi al quinto posto nel 1939-40 e al decimo nel 1940-1941.

La società in crisi finanziaria best leak proof water bottle, in pieno periodo di guerra, non si iscrisse al campionato di Serie C del 1941-42 e si sciolse definitivamente nel 1942.

Tra i personaggi principali che fecero parte della società si ricordano il Comm. Rovetta

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, il patron della Mille Miglia Renzo Castagneto (anche presidenti del Brescia Calcio) e i calciatori Bruno Bianchi (92 presenze in Serie A con il Brescia), Erminio Reggiani (89 presenze in Serie A con il Brescia), i fratelli Italo Rebuzzi e Pietro Rebuzzi (187 presenze in serie A tra Brescia, Sampdoria e Pro Patria il primo, 93 il secondo con Brescia, Inter e Vicenza) e Francesco Lamberti (in A con Venezia e Fiorentina).

Intel Pentium D

Los procesadores Pentium D fueron introducidos por Intel en el Spring 2005 Intel Developer Forum. Un chip Pentium D consiste básicamente en 2 procesadores Pentium 4 metidos en un solo encapsulado (2 núcleos Prescott para el core Smithfield y 2 núcleos Cedar Mill para el core Presler) y comunicados a través del FSB. Su proceso de fabricación fue inicialmente de 90 nm y en su segunda generación de 65 nm. El nombre en clave del Pentium D antes de su lanzamiento era “Smithfield”. Hubo un rumor que decía que estos chips incluían una tecnología DRM (Digital Rights Management) para hacer posible un sistema de protección anticopia de la mano de Microsoft, lo cual Intel desmintió, si bien aclarando que algunos de sus chipsets sí tenían dicha tecnología, pero no en la dimensión que se había planteado[cita requerida].

Los procesadores Pentium D no son monolíticos, es decir, los núcleos no comparten una única caché y la comunicación entre ellos no es directa, sino se realiza a través del bus del sistema.

Existen cinco variantes 8xx del Pentium D:

Nota: no debe confundirse el último con Pentium 4 Extreme Edition, de 3,73 GHz, que únicamente posee un único núcleo (Prescott).

Cada uno de ellos posee dos núcleos Prescott conformando así el core Smithfield, están fabricados en un proceso de 90 nm, con 1 MiB de memoria caché L2 para cada núcleo. Todos los Pentium D incluyen las instrucciones EM64T, que les permite trabajar con datos de 64 bits nativamente e incluyen soporte para la tecnología Bit NX e Intel Viiv. Las placas base que los soportan son las que utilizan los chipsets 101 ingredients of meat tenderizer, 102, 945 thermos brand, 946, 965 y 975.

Posteriormente se añadieron otras once variantes del Pentium D, de tipo 9xx:

Cada uno de ellos posee dos núcleos Cedar Mill, conformando así el core Presler press art lemon and lime squeezer, están fabricados en un proceso de 65 nm con 2 MiB de memoria caché L2 para cada núcleo. Todos los 9×5 se les denomina así porque éstos no contienen (salvo en la serie Extreme Edition) la tecnología de virtualización Intel VT, por tanto esto los hace más económicos.

(*)HyperThreading en procesadores de doble núcleo equivale a tener 2 procesadores virtuales en cada núcleo, por lo tanto, existirían 4 procesadores virtuales para el sistema.

Un dato a destacar es que los procesadores fabricados en el primer trimestre de 2006 no traen soporte para la tecnología SpeedStep. Esta tecnología está disponible para el Core Stepping C1 en adelante (se identifica el Core Stepping mediante el “sSpec Number” del procesador). La serie 6×1 de procesadores Pentium 4, también está afectada por esta limitación.​

Le Champo – Espace Jacques-Tati

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

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Géolocalisation sur la carte : Paris

Le Champo – Espace Jacques-Tati – plus communément appelé Le Champo ou Le Champollion – est un cinéma indépendant d’Art et Essai situé au 51, rue des Écoles à l’angle de la rue Champollion dans le 5e arrondissement de Paris. Il est inscrit aux monuments historiques depuis 2000.

Le Champollion, qui tient son nom de la rue attenante, propose sa première séance le après avoir été créé sur l’emplacement d’une ancienne librairie du quartier latin. Il est repris l’année suivante par Roger Joly, un industriel de l’éclairage passionné de cinéma football uniform pants. À la suite d’un incendie dans la cabine de projection en 1941, il développe le procédé de rétro-réflex, semblable à un périscope, qu’il installe dans sa salle. En 1955, est ouverte la seconde salle en sous-sol après l’acquisition des locaux d’un ancien cabaret. L’entrée principale devient l’entrée unique pour les deux salles à la fin des années 1970. En 1980, Roger Joly laisse la gestion du cinéma à sa fille Christiane Renavand.

François Truffaut déclarera que ce cinéma est son « quartier général » et Claude Chabrol sa « seconde université&nbsp cheap football jerseys online;». La programmation du cinéma à ce moment fait une large place aux rétrospectives et propose à partir de la fin des années 1990 de larges cycles dédiés aux grands réalisateurs comme Jacques Tati, Akira Kurosawa, David Lynch, Kenji Mizoguchi, Louis Malle, Louis Jouvet, Henri-Georges Clouzot, Valerio Zurlini, Sacha Guitry, Marcel Carné, Aki Kaurismaki, Atom Egoyan, Woody Allen (cycle qui dura près de 2 ans), Cary Grant, etc. Le cinéma propose également des nuits thématiques se terminant au petit matin pour les ultimes séances et des festivals jeune public.

À cette époque, la survie du cinéma est menacée par des projets immobiliers au moment du renouvellement du bail. La façade et les salles sont alors en totalité, ce qui est un fait rare, et en urgence, inscrites au titre des monuments historiques par un arrêté du ce qui pérennise l’activité et sauve le cinéma. À l’occasion de son cinquantenaire, en 1988, la salle s’est vu associer le nom de Jacques Tati, en raison de son parrainage ancien du lieu.

Le Champo est situé à l’angle de la rue des Écoles et de la rue Champollion. Son accès se fait par la station de métro de la ligne Cluny – La Sorbonne, ainsi que par plusieurs lignes de bus RATP RATP 21 27 38 63 70 85 86 87 96.

Hibok-Hibok

Der Hibok-Hibok von Nordosten, rechts der kleinere Mount Vulcan, im Vordergrund White Island

Der Hibok-Hibok, auch Catarman large glass bottles, ist ein 1332 m hoher Schichtvulkan auf der Insel Camiguin im Süden der Philippinen.

Der Hibok-Hibok liegt im Nordwesten Camuguins und ist der jüngste der vier Vulkane auf der Insel. In historischer Zeit war er in den Jahren 1827, 1862, 1871 bis 1875 und 1948 bis 1953 aktiv.

Beim Ausbruch von 1871 bis 1875 entstand rund 3,5 Kilometer nordwestlich des Hibok-Hibok ein neuer Lavadom, der Mount Vulcan. Der Lavadom erreichte 1875 eine Höhe von rund 450 Metern bei einem Basisdurchmesser von fast 1,5 Kilometer. Dem Ausbruch gingen starke Erdbeben voraus, bei denen eine nahegelegene Stadt fast vollständig zerstört wurde.

Der Ausbruch von 1948 bis 1953 nahm seinen Ausgang am oberen Nordosthang des Hibok-Hibok. Beim Abgang eines pyroklastischen Stroms in Richtung der Inselhauptstadt Mambajao kamen am 5. Dezember 1951 zahlreiche Menschen zu Tode. Der philippinische Präsident Elpidio Quirino nannte im Dezember 1951 206 Tote und rund 800 Vermisste, die vermutlich tot seien. Der Regierung der Provinz Camiguin zufolge starben 3000 Menschen. Nach wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen betrug die Zahl der Toten 68. Nach dem Ausbruch setzte eine erhebliche Abwanderung von der Insel ein; rund die Hälfte der zuvor 69 hydration belt canada.000 Bewohner verließ Camiguin lint cutter.

Als Folge dieses Ausbruchs von 1951 wurde im Jahr darauf die Vorgängerorganisation des heutigen Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) gegründet.

Am 9. März 2004 wurde die Region um den Vulkan zum Timpoong and Hibok-Hibok Natural Monument nach den Richtlinien des NIPAS-Gesetzes erklärt, auf einer Fläche von 22,27 km². Dieses Naturschutzgebiet umfasst die zentrale und westliche Region der Insel um den Mt. Timpoong, Mt. Mambajao, Mt. Tres Marias und den Hibok-Hibok. In diesem Naturschutzgebiet leben unter anderem die auf Camiguin Island endemische Amphibie Oreophryne nana und die 2012 erstmals beschriebene Eulenart Ninox leventisi. Die küstennahen Gebiete des Naturschutzgebietes werden für landwirtschaftliche Zwecke genutzt, unberührte Regenwaldgebiete finden sich ab einer Höhenlage von 500 Meter über dem Meeresspiegel, dem sich ab 1.100 Höhenmetern ein Gebirgsregenwald anschließt, der ca. 500 Hektar umfasst. Zum Naturschutzgebiet gehört auch die Koralleninsel Mantigue vor der Ostküste der Insel.

Naturschutzgebiete: Balatukan Range | Baliangao | Hibok-hibok Natural | Initao-Libertad | Inayawan Range | Kalatungan Range&nbsp fabric stores;| Kitanglad Range | Mahugunao Watershed | Malindang Range

Battle of Chrysas

The Battle of Chrysas was a battle fought in 392 BC in the course of the Sicilian Wars, between the Carthaginian army under Mago and a Greek army under Dionysius I, tyrant of Syracuse, who was aided by Agyris, tyrant of the Sicel city of Agyrium. Mago had been defeated by Dionysius at Abacaenum in 393, which had not damaged the Carthaginian position in Sicily. Reinforced by Carthage in 392 BC, Mago moved to attack the Sicles allied with Syracuse in central Sicily. After the Carthaginians reached and encamped near the river Chrysas, the Sicels harassed the Carthaginian supply lines causing a supply shortage, while the Greek soldiers rebelled and deserted Dionysius when he refused to fight a pitched battle. Both Mago and Dionysius agreed to a peace treaty, which allowed the Carthaginians to formally occupy the area west of the River Halycus, while Dionysius was given lordship over the Sicel lands. The peace would last until 383, when Dionysius attacked the Carthaginians again.

Dionysius attacked the Phoenician city of Motya in 398 BC, igniting the first of four wars he was to lead against Carthage between 398 -368 BC. After the sack of Motya, Dionysius retired to Syracuse, while Himilco of Carthage arrived in Sicily with 50,000 men along with 400 triremes and 600 transports to continue the war. in 397 BC.

Himilco first stormed Motya, where the mostly Sicel garrison under Biton was easily overcome, then lifted the siege of Segesta

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, and Dionysius retired to Syracuse instead of offering battle in Western Sicily against a superior army. Himilco returned to Panormus, garrisoned the Carthaginian territories, and then sailed to Lipara and collected 30 talents of silver as tribute. The Carthaginian force next sailed for Messana and easily captured and sacked the city. Himilco founded the city of Tauromenium and populated it with allied Sicels, then moved south towards Catana. Dionysius moved his forces to Catana also but, due to the rash tactics of his brother Leptines, the Greek fleet was heavily defeated at the naval battle of Catana. Himilco next besieged Syracuse itself in the autumn of 397 BC. After the Carthaginian forces were devastated by a plague, Dionysius managed to decimate the Punic fleet and shut up the army survivors in their camp. Himilco, after bribing Dionysius, fled to Africa with Carthaginian citizens, while Dionysius enslaved the abandoned Carthaginian soldiers.

The Sicilian Greek cities which had become tributary to Carthage after 405 BC had all revolted in 398 BC, and along with the Sicels and the Sikans had joined Dionysius in his attack against Motya. After the defeat at Catana the Sicilian Greek soldiers had returned to their respective homes when Dionysius decided to withstand a siege in Syracuse against their wishes. The Sicels had also turned against Dionysius and had sent soldiers to help Himilco during the Carthaginian siege of Syracuse in 397 BC.

The return of Himilco after abandoning his troops to the mercy of Dionysius did not sit well with either the Carthaginian citizenry or their African subjects. Himilco publicly took full responsibility for the debacle, dressed in rags visited all the temples of the city pleading for deliverance and finally committed suicide. The divine was not mollified as a plague swept through Africa weakening Carthage further, and to top things off, the Libyans, angered by the desertion of their kinsmen in Sicily, gathered an army numbering 70,000 men and besieged Carthage itself.

Mago, the victor of Catana, (and possibly a member of the Magonid family) took command. The standing Punic army was in Sicily and recruiting a new one would have been time consuming and probably very costly (Himilco’s abandonment would have made mercenaries wary), so he rallied Carthaginian citizens to man the walls while the Punic navy kept the city supplied, as the Libyans had no ships to counter the Carthaginian fleet. Mago then used bribes and other means to quell the rebels.

After securing the safety of Carthage, Mago moved to Sicily, where the Punic city of Solus had been sacked by Dionysius sometime in 396 BC. Carthage was unwilling or unable to provide Mago with additional forces, and he had to make do with the Punic garrison left by Himilco and whatever forces he could gather in Sicily. The Carthaginians caught a break when Dionysius chose not to invade the Punic territories in Western Sicily immediately lifting the siege of Syracuse. The Elymians had stayed loyal to Carthage since the start of the war, while the Sicilian Greeks and Sikans were not threatening and most of the Sicels were not hostile when Mago arrived in Sicily.

Instead of trying to recover the lost Punic conquests through force, Mago adopted a policy of cooperation and friendship, giving aid to Greeks, Sikans, Sicels, Elymians and Punics regardless of their prior standing with Carthage. Many of the Greeks had been victims of the duplicity and aggression of Dionysius (he had destroyed Greek cities Naxos, Leontini and Catana and driven out the population) and even preferred to live under Punic rule.

The Carthaginians allowed Greeks from Naxos, Catana and Leontini, made refugees by Dionysius, along with Sicels and Sikans to settle in Punic territory, while alliances were made with Sicel tribes being threatened by Dionysius. The Greeks cities, free of Carthaginian over lordship since 398 BC, now moved from a pro Syracuse position to a neutral one, either feeling threatened by Dionysius or because of the activities of Mago. Mago was forced to take up arms after Dionysius attacked Tauromenium in 394 BC, a Carthaginian alley.

Dionysius did not immediately attack Punic Sicily after lifting the siege of Syracuse in 396 BC, although no formal treaty had been made ending the war with Carthage. The war had been costly and he may have been short of money, he also had to deal with a revolt of his mercenaries, and furthermore, he feared a fight to the finish with Carthage as it might end up finishing him. After securing Syracuse and resettling the rebellious mercenaries at Leontini (or having them killed after taking them to Leontini in the pretext of handing the town to them), Dionysius began to secure his position in Eastern Sicily.

The destruction of Messana had left Rhegion, a Greek city hostile to Dionysius, in a position to dominate the Strait of Messina, and Carthage with an opportunity to join hands with Rhegion and threaten Syracuse from the north. Dionysius first rebuilt and repopulated Messina with colonists from Locri and Medma from Italy and some from Messene, who were later relocated to Tyndaris when Sparta objected to settling the Messenians in Messana. The original inhabitants of Messana, homeless since the sack of their city in 397 BC, were settled at Tyndaris, another city built by Dionysius after he forced the Sicel city of Abacaenum to cede lands to the new colony. The founding of Messana and Tyndaris helped secure the north eastern coast of Sicily for Dionysius. Rhegion, fearing Dionysius might use Messana as a base against them planted Mylae between Messana and Tyndaris and populated the city with the refugees of Naxos and Catana, however, in 394 BC the Messanians defeated a Rhegion attack on Messana and took Mylae.

After settling Messana Dionysius attacked the Sicels and took Smeneous (exact location unknown) and Morgantina, around which the Punic city Solus and Sicel city Cephaloedium was betrayed to him, the Sicel town of Enna was sacked and the booty fattened his coffers. Syracusan territory by now had expanded to border Agyrium.

Agyris, tyrant of Agyrium was a ruthless man, having become rich after killing the leading citizens of Agyrium, commanded 20,000 citizens and many fortresses and was second only to Dionysius in Sicily. Furthermore, Agyris had aided the Campanian mercenaries sent by Carthage to rescued Dionysius in 403 BC (when the Greek rebels had him besieged in Syracuse and he was close to capitulating), so Dionysius had a personal debt to consider. Dionysius chose not to provoke Agyris or Damon, ruler of Centuripae but made alliances with the Sicel cities of Agyrium, Centuripae, Herbita, Assorus (this city had stayed loyal to Syracuse after other Sicels had deserted to Himilco when Tauromenium was founded in 397 BC) and Herbessus. creating a buffer zone for Syracuse in central Sicily. Dionysius next besieged Tauromenium in the winter, but was forced lift the siege after his night assault failed. Dionysius next attacked Rehgion, but his attack failed, and he returned to Sicily after concluding a treaty with Rhegion to prevent their joining Carthage.

It normally took Carthage some time to organize armies so Mago did not await reinforcements from Africa to arrive. He gathered together whatever forces he could in Sicily and set out for Messana, which had deposed out the partisans of Dionysius after his debacle at Tauronemium. Dionysius managed to intercept Mago near Abacaenum and the Carthaginians were heavily defeated, losing 8,000 soldiers. The defeat did not weaken the Carthagnian position in Sicily. Carthage reinforced Mago, and the stage was set for another confrontation.

Himilco had brought 50,000 men along with 400 triremes and 600 transports to Sicily in 397 BC.The majority of this army had been destroyed at Syracuse, and the size of the force Mago commanded at Abacaenum is not known except that it had shrunk by a further 8,000 men after the battle. Carthage sent an army of 80,000 soldiers to Sicily, recruited from AfricSardinia and Campania hydration belts for runners. No Iberian recruits are mentioned, perhaps the presence of Iberians at Leontini and in the army of Syracuse had made Carthage wary of hiring them. Carthaginian troop numbers may have been exaggerated by a factor of two, but it is likely Mago’s force outnumbered the Greeks.

Dionysius had mustered an army of 40,000 foot and 3,000 horsemen, from both citizens and mercenaries (at least 10,000, if not more) for attacking Motya in 398 BC, perhaps along with 40,000 Greek, Sicel and Sikan volunteers. At Catana in 397 BC Dionysius commanded 30,000 foot and 3,000 horse, perhaps he was short of cash to hire mercenaries and part of his forces were manning Syracuse. In 392 BC Dionysius organized an army of 20,000 men, perhaps garrison duty and cash shortage prevented assembling of a larger contingent. The Sicels mustered an army of 20,000 troops to support Syracuse.

The Libyans supplied both heavy and light infantry and formed the most disciplined units of the army. The heavy infantry fought in close formation, armed with long spears and round shields, wearing helmets and linen cuirasses. The light Libyan infantry carried javelins and a small shield, same as Iberian light infantry. Campanian, Sardinian, Sicel and Gallic infantry fought in their native gear, but often were equipped by Carthage. Sicels and other Sicilians were equipped like Greek Hoplites, as were the Sicilian Greek mercenaries. Mago’s force had no Iberian soldiers.

The Libyans, Carthaginian citizens and the Libyo-Phoenicians provided disciplined, well trained cavalry equipped with thrusting spears and round shields. Numidia provided superb light cavalry armed with bundles of javelins and riding without bridle or saddle. Iberians and Gauls also provided cavalry, which relied on the all out charge. Carthage at this time did not use elephants, and there is no mention of war chariots being present in Mago’s army. The Carthaginian officer corps held overall command of the army, although many units may have fought under their chieftains.

The mainstay of the Greek army was the Hoplite, drawn mainly from the citizens by Dionysius had a large number of mercenaries from Italy and Greece as well. Sicels and other native Sicilians also served in the army as hoplites and also supplied peltasts, and a number of Campanians, probably equipped like Samnite or Etruscan warriors, were present as well. The Phalanx was the standard fighting formation of the army. The cavalry was recruited from wealthier citizens and hired mercenaries. Dionysius also had the services of a number of Iberian troops, former members of Himilco’s army. The Iberian infantry wore purple bordered white tunics and leather headgear. The Heavy infantry fought in a dense phalanx, armed with heavy throwing spears, long body shields and short thrusting swords.

Carthage had launched 3 major campaigns in Sicily in 409, 406 and 397 BC and the Punic navy had played a major role in combat, transport and logistical roles, as all 3 campaigns had progressed along the coast of Sicily bpa free reusable water bottles. There is no mention of Carthage mobilizing a naval contingent to serve in Sicily in 392 BC, so Mago probably chose an inland route to take on Syracuse. The Carthaginians probably intended to deal with the Sicels allied with Dionysius and not launch a direct attack on Syracuse. The exact route of Mago’s march is not known, except that many Sicel cities formally under Dionysius broke away and declared for Carthage. Mago faced little problems until he reached the territory of Agyris near the River Chrysas.

The Carthaginian army was probably dependent on supplies from their strongholds and allies, being inland the Punic fleet could not have supplied them. Mago marched in the territory of Agyris, but failed to persuade him to switch sides. The Carthaginians then moved to intercept the Greek army, but Dionysius, heavily outnumbered, fell back and luered the Carthaginians away from Agryium.

Hamilcar Barca during the first Punic war and Quintus Fabius Maximus during the second had adopt a strategy on encamping near their enemy and constantly skirmishing without engaging in pitched battle. Successive Carthaginian commanders faced similar tactics from the Greeks during their campaign in 406 BC, when the Greeks harassed the Punic supply lines and brought them close to disaster. Dionysius now adopted the same strategy. He encamped with his army but refused battle, while the Carthaginians camped nearby, the Sicels were employed to do the harassment.

Dionysius personally visited Agyris and secured his cooperation after promising him extensive territories and to supply whatever he needed in future. Agyris sent supplies of corn and other essentials to the Greek camp, then joined Dionysius with his whole army. The Carthaginian army outnumbered the combined armies of Syracuse and Agryium, so the Greeks sat tight while the Sicels began to harass the Punic supply train and foragers. Constant ambushes and skirmishing followed, and the Sicels, operating in their home ground, got the better of things and soon the Carthaginians faced a supply shortage. However, Fabian strategy is time consuming and that in itself can create fatal drawbacks, as Fabius and Hamilcar would discover in the future and Dionysius discovered at Chrysas.

Greek commanders had put the Carthaginians in similar situations at Akragas and Gela only to have their schemes scuttled by other factors. Like the plague that derailed Carthaginians campaigns in Sicily, Dionysius often was beset by mutiny and desertion. Sicilian Greeks left his army after his retreat from Gela in 405 BC and from Catana in 397. Syracusan soldiers had mutinied in 405 and 403 BC and almost toppled him, his mercenaries mutinied after his victory at Syracuse in 396 BC. While mercenaries fought as long they got paid, Greek citizen soldiers liked short campaigns. When Dionysius refused to heed their call for battle and decided to persist with the guerrilla tactics, the Syracusans simply left his camp and went home.

Dionysius made up his depleted numbers by freeing the slaves of the departed Greeks and arming them, but his army had shrunk both in numbers and fighting quality. It is not known if Mago got wind of his predicament or why he took no action. Dionysius had to cope with the possibility of a Carthaginian attack and also possible betrayal by the Sicels, victims of many a Greek scheme in the past. Mago had 3 options: sue for peace, retreat or fight a pitched battle. With both parties seeking a way out of their predicaments without battle, peace negotiations were opened and concluded.

Himilco and Dionysius had concluded a peace treaty in 405 BC after the Carthaginians had sacked Akragas, Gela and Camarina, with only the plague stopping them from attacking Syracuse. The terms of that treaty were:

The Sicilian political situation in 392 BC had changed considerably. Carthage was in control of Phoenicians, Sikans and Elymians, but the triburary Greeks cities had become independent of Carthaginian control. Dionysius had occupied Leontini while Messene was allied with Syracuse. The Sicels were divided, some were under Greek occupation or allied with Dionysius, while others, especially Tauromenium, was allied with Carthage. Dionysius and Mago agreed to terms, which are not clearly known but which reflected the ground reality:

Although both Mago and Dionysius were in a jam at Chrysas, it was probably possible for them to disengage and continue the war. However, the following factors may have influenced their agreeing to the peace pact:

Mago sailed back to Carthage after the treaty and the Carthaginian army was disbanded. Carthage launched no wars in the Mediterranean. Dionysius took bloodless possession of Tauromenium in 391 BC and replaced the Sicel population with his mercenaries. If Dionysius compensated Agyris for his crucial services, the details are not known. The Syracusan rebels joined Dionysius before the treaty was signed and he promptly returned the freed slaves to their masters. After settling his affairs in Sicily, Dionysius began a campaign against Rhegion in 390 BC. He failed to take the city in 390 and 389 BC and finally succeeded in 387 BC. 3 years later, again he started a war with Carthage that lasted until 375 BC and ended in his defeat at the Battle of Cronium.

Jean-Louis Dufau

Jean-Louis Dufau ( waterproof bags camping, Pau – , Pau), est un magistrat et homme politique français.

Fils d’un avocat au parlement de Navarre qui mourut président à la cour de Pau, il suivit, sous le Premier Empire, la carrière paternelle. Auditeur en 1808, et, en 1811, avocat général près la cour impériale de Pau, il perdit momentanément son emploi en 1816, sous la pré-volition de bonapartisme facts about bottled water. Rappelé en 1820, il était fabric shaver, quand survint la Révolution de Juillet, le doyen des avocats généraux de France. Le ministère Dupont de l’Eure le laissa dans cette situation. Élu, le 5 juillet 1831, député du 1er collège des Basses-Pyrénées (Pau), avec 128 voix sur 148 votants et 179 inscrits, il « ne se montra point, dit un biographe, rancunier envers le pouvoir », et se dévoua aux divers ministères qui se succédèrent depuis lors. Dufau fut réélu député de Pau le 21 juin 1834 : mais le gouvernement l’ayant, vers la même époque, promu procureur général près la cour royale de Pau, il ne se représenta pas devant ses électeurs, qui lui donnèrent pour successeur à la Chambre Lavielle running water holder. Dufan n’était paru que rarement à la tribune et ne s’était signalé que par un l’apport sur la proposition de Parant, relative à l’abolition des majorats. Il mourut sous le Second Empire, premier président honoraire.