Stallburg

[senza fonte]
La Stallburg è un castello austriaco del XV secolo utilizzato come residenza imperiale.
Il castello venne acquistato dall’allora arciduca Massimiliano (poi imperatore col nome di Massimiliano II d’Asburgo) come propria residenza personale. Dal 1659 al 1776 qui albergò anche la collezione d’arte dell’arciduca Leopoldo Guglielmo d’Austria, la principale di tutta l’Austria e sempre qui venne accolto il primo elefante che raggiunse l’Austria, un vero evento per la popolazione dell’epoca.
L’interno del castello è articolato su un grande cortile con tre ordini di loggiati e quello inferiore era utilizzato in parte per accogliervi le stalle e, all’epoca dell’Imperatore Carlo VI, i cavalli della scuola spagnola di Vienna. Per decorare ed abbeverare gli animali, nel 1675 venne realizzata la fontana che ancora oggi si trova al centro di questo stesso cortile

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L’edificio venne gravemente danneggiato da una bomba nel 1945, poco prima della fine della seconda guerra mondiale e venne fedelmente ricostruito tra il 1947 ed il 1948. Oggi il palazzo è aperto al pubblico ed accoglie anche un museo sulla scuola di equitazione viennese in ricordo dell’antica sede qui presente.
Altri progetti

Face of Canada

Face of Canada is an art exhibition displaying paintings of notable Canadians. It was showcased on July 1, 2011 at Canada Place in Vancouver, displaying over 100 oil portraits of notable individuals

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, both past and present, that helped shape the nation.

The concept was derived by Canadian artist, William Meire. Born in Vancouver, September 2, 1966, Meire traveled to 49 countries studying art. Painting impressionist landscapes professionally, in an array of mediums over the past 10 years, Meire turned his interest to portraiture work in oil. After seeing Team Canada win the men’s hockey in the 2010 Olympic Games and feeling a sense of national pride, he started the ‘Great Canadians,’ a small series which eventually led to the Face of Canada. After much research, Meire realized the great number of notable Canadians who have shaped and changed the nation, and affected many lives. On July 1, 2011, crowds came to see the one-day solo exhibition of over 100 oil portraits at Canada Place, which has now become part of Canada’s national heritage.
The exhibition includes numerous portraits new balance Outlet, including:

Payar Island

Payar Island is one of the many islands off mainland Kedah in the Strait of Malacca. It is situated south of Langkawi, a more famous archipelago. Payar Island status as a marine park offers protection for its diverse marine life. Payar Island is also a snorkelling and diving site famous for its corals.
The Payar Island Marine Park is situated in the northern part of the Straits of Melaka, 19 nautical miles (35 km) south of Langkawi and encompasses the islands of Payar, Lembu, Segantang and Kaca which are surrounded by coral reefs. The marine park teems with a diversity of marine life and vegetation.
Many endangered species of fishes and marine organisms live within the sanctuary. Measuring 2 km long and 1/4 km wide, Payar Island is the most popular of the islands as its sheltered waters are ideal are for snorkelling, diving and swimming. Among the dive spots is the “Coral Garden”, an area covered with bright, multi-hued soft corals.
There are several sandy beaches on Payar island for picnics as well as hiking trails for those who wish to explore the island. Just off the beach, one can indulge in the experience of feeding baby sharks. Facilities include gazebos, picnic tables, barbecue pits and restrooms at selected areas. There is also a Visitors’ Centre that provides information about the marine park. Pulau Payar Marine Park Scuba diving is popular, even with the recent coal bleaching, and still very good. There are plenty of coral dive sites and a wide variety of marine life.
Visitors can get to Payar Island from the Kuah jetty point by catamaran or speed boat

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. The catamaran services operated by Langkawi Coral, takes about 45 minutes to get to Payar Island while the speed boat takes an hour. It is advisable to book the catamaran service a day before the trip. Enquiries can be made with any travel agent in Kuah or at the jetty point for those intending to travel by speed boat. Apart from the fare, a levy of RM5.00 for adults and RM2.50 for children is charged for entry to the marine park.
As of 2 November 2010, Payar Island Marine Park is just a shadow of its former self. Due to excessive carrying capacity and persistently extreme sea temperatures for the last six months, the Marine Park is suffering from excessive coral bleaching at critical level. The corals are now a dull grey/black, not the rainbow of colours they once were.
The Department of Marine Park Kedah has taken action by closing the affected areas. The areas are Marine Park Center and Coral Garden. No activities are allowed in these areas.
The bleaching is widespread this year affecting more than half the reefs around Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia.
Coordinates: 6°3.752′N 100°2 Ted Baker Dresses UK.4′E / 6.062533°N 100.0400°E / 6.062533; 100.0400

Michael Edwards

Michael Edwards (* 5. Dezember 1963 in Cheltenham), besser bekannt als Eddie the Eagle, ist ein ehemaliger britischer Skispringer. Er ist der erste Springer, der für Großbritannien bei Olympischen Winterspielen an den Start ging.
Der Wunsch, an Olympischen Spielen teilzunehmen, bestand bei Edwards nach eigenem Bekunden schon seit der Kindheit:
„Als ich acht, neun Jahre alt war bogner wiki, habe ich erstmals bewusst die Olympischen Spiele im Fernsehen gesehen und dachte: Wow! Es muss großartig sein, für sein Land an so etwas teilzunehmen. Das wollte ich auch. Egal wie.“
Er versuchte sich zunächst erfolglos im Judo, im Volleyball und im Pferdesport. Auslöser für den Wechsel zum Skispringen war für ihn eine Fernsehübertragung der Vierschanzentournee 1985/86. Das Skispringen war zu diesem Zeitpunkt eine olympische Disziplin, die von keinem britischen Sportler ausgeübt wurde bogner man. Daher begann Edwards Ende der 1980er Jahre, ohne finanzielle Unterstützung der British Ski and Snowboard Federation, an internationalen Skisprungwettbewerben teilzunehmen. Das Skispringen erlernte er nach eigener Aussage auf den Hügeln der südwestenglischen Stadt Gloucester.
Er nahm 1987 an den Nordischen Skiweltmeisterschaften in Oberstdorf teil und belegte unter den 58 Springern den letzten Platz, jedoch bedeuteten seine 73,5 Meter britischen Rekord, was ihm die Teilnahme an den Olympischen Winterspielen 1988 in Calgary erlaubte. Mit 82 Kilogramm war er etwa neun Kilogramm schwerer als der schwerste seiner olympischen Kontrahenten. Sowohl auf der Normalschanze als auch auf der Großschanze belegte er den letzten Platz.
Aufgrund einer ausgeprägten Weitsichtigkeit, die er sich inzwischen chirurgisch beheben ließ, war er bei seinen Sprüngen auf starke Augengläser angewiesen. Der Umstand, dass diese bei den an den Wettkampftagen vorherrschenden Wetterbedingungen permanent beschlugen, führte dazu, dass man Edwards vor seinen Sprüngen des Öfteren beim Reinigen seiner Gläser beobachten konnte.
Schnell wurde unter seinen Fans der Spitzname „Eddie the Eagle“ (deutsch: „Eddie der Adler“) geläufig, der darauffolgend auch von den Medien übernommen wurde.
Als größten Moment seiner Karriere bezeichnet Edwards die Abschlussfeier der Olympischen Spiele in Calgary 1988. Als der Chef des Organisationskomitees, Frank King, in seiner Rede den Athleten mit den Worten dankte „Sie haben Weltrekorde gebrochen, persönliche Bestleistungen aufgestellt und einer von Ihnen flog wie ein Adler“, jubelten die 100.000 Zuschauer und schrien „Eddie, Eddie!“. Edwards avancierte für kurze Zeit zum Medienstar. Er veröffentlichte unter dem Titel On the Piste ein humoristisches Buch und nahm mehrere Singles auf. Es wird geschätzt, dass er 1988 mit seinen Auftritten etwa 400.000 £ einnahm.
1989 stürzte Edwards in Innsbruck am Bergisel und brach sich das Schlüsselbein. Obwohl er erklärte, an der Nordischen Skiweltmeisterschaft in Lahti teilnehmen zu wollen, war dies sein letzter Wettkampf. Die Veranstalter verhinderten weitere Teilnahmen an Skisprungwettbewerben. Das IOC änderte 1990 die Regeln und Edwards schaffte die Qualifikation für die nachfolgenden Olympischen Spiele nicht mehr.
1992 meldete Edwards Privatinsolvenz an, er verdiente jedoch weiterhin Geld mit Werbeauftritten. Trotz eines im Anschluss an seine sportliche Karriere erfolgreich abgeschlossenen Jurastudiums kehrte er in seinen alten Beruf als Maurer zurück. Seinen Lebensunterhalt verdient er nach eigener Aussage zudem mit Nebenjobs, Fernsehauftritten und als Motivationstrainer.
2010 wurde Edwards im Vorfeld der Olympischen Winterspiele in Vancouver die Ehre zuteil, in Winnipeg die Fackel des Olympischen Feuers zu tragen. Ende Dezember 2013 hat Edwards in Oberstdorf im Rahmen der Vierschanzentournee an einem Showwettkampf teilgenommen.
Edwards Lebensgeschichte wurde von Dexter Fletcher mit dem Film Eddie the Eagle – Alles ist möglich verfilmt. In dem Film, der 2016 in die Kinos kommen wird, wird Edwards von Taron Egerton gespielt, in anderen Rollen sind Hugh Jackman und Christopher Walken zu sehen.

Un moment à Pékin

Un moment à Pékin est un roman écrit par Lin Yutang en 1939, édité en deux Tomes : Enfances chinoises et Le triomphe de la vie

En 1900. M.Yao, un commerçant à l’idéal taoïste, doit quitter Pékin avec sa famille à la suite de la révolte des Boxers. Sa seconde fille âgée de dix ans, Mulan, est enlevée sur le chemin par des voleurs d’enfants. Après quelques péripéties, cette dernière est recueillie par la famille de M.Tseng, un confucianiste traditionnel. Les deux familles vont alors entrer en relation, figurant la confrontation de deux perspectives différentes quant à l’avenir du pays. Mulan est mariée avec Sunya

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, le troisième fils du familie Tseng, même si elle tombait amoureuse d’un garçon étudiant et pauvre, appelé Kung Lifu, que se mariera avec la sœur de Mulan, Mochow.
On retrouve ici le personnage de Moulane plus âgée, aux prises avec la modernité et les bouleversements de l’Histoire, de la chute de la Mandchourie jusqu’à l’invasion par le Japon.
À travers ce roman

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, l’auteur tente une grande fresque qui illustre sa volonté constante de faire découvrir la Chine à l’Occident, lui-même étant à cheval entre les deux cultures. Malgré la gravité des évènements, il tente d’y insuffler une certaine dose d’optimisme.
Le livre a été écrit en anglais sous le titre Moment in Peking. Il a été traduit en chinois à plusieurs reprises, notamment à Taiwan en 1977 par Zhang Zhenyu. Une édition expurgée est disponible en Chine continentale depuis 1987. La traduction française de François Fosca (1944) est rééditée par Picquier (en poche : tome 1 ISBN 978-2877309950 ; tome 2 ISBN 978-2877309967).
Adaptation en 2005 par Zhang Zien pour la télévision, dans une série de 44 épisodes produite par CCTV. Zhao Wei y interprétait Moulane. Cette série télévisée a reçu la plus haute cote de l’année en Chine.
« Il n’existe pas de catastrophe si grande que l’esprit humain ne puisse s’élever au-dessus d’elle, et, par son ampleur même, la transformer en quelque chose de grand et de radieux. »

Royal Rumble

The Royal Rumble is a professional wrestling pay-per-view event, produced every January by professional wrestling promotion WWE. The event is named after the Royal Rumble match, a Battle royal match whose participants enter at timed intervals.
With the exception of the initial Royal Rumble event in 1988, which was shown as a television special on USA Network, the Royal Rumble has been shown on pay-per-view (first in 1989) and is one of WWE’s “Big Four”, along with WrestleMania, SummerSlam, and Survivor Series. The Royal Rumble is considered one of WWE’s most popular pay-per-view events.

The Royal Rumble is a pay-per-view consisting of the Royal Rumble match, championship matches, and various other matches. The first Royal Rumble took place on January 24, 1988 and was broadcast live on the USA Network. The following year, the event started to be broadcast on pay-per-view and thus became one of WWE’s “big four” pay-per-views, along with WrestleMania, Survivor Series, and SummerSlam.
The Royal Rumble match is usually located at the top of the card, though there have been exceptions such as the 1988, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2006, and 2013 events. Due to the Rumble match taking up a large amount of time (most Rumble matches last roughly one hour), the Rumble event tends to have a smaller card than most other pay-per-view events, which routinely have six to eight matches per card. The 2008 Royal Rumble was the first WWE pay-per-view to be available in high-definition.
The Royal Rumble is based on the classic Battle Royal match, in which a number of wrestlers aim at eliminating their competitors by tossing them over the top rope, with both feet touching the floor. The winner of the event is the last wrestler remaining after all others have been eliminated.
The Royal Rumble differs from the classical Battle Royal as the contestants do not enter the ring at the same time but instead are assigned entry numbers, usually via a lottery, although desirable spots are occasionally assigned by other means, the most common being winning a match. This lottery is usually staged right before the event begins. The match begins with the two wrestlers who have drawn entry numbers one and two, with the remaining wrestlers entering the ring at regular timed intervals, either 90 seconds or two minutes, according to their entry number. This format is credited to Pat Patterson. To date, only four men who have been one of the starting wrestlers have won the Royal Rumble: Shawn Michaels, Vince McMahon, Chris Benoit and Rey Mysterio. The most common number to win is number 27.
The Royal Rumble match commonly involves thirty wrestlers and last about an hour, with the longest match, at the 2002 event, lasting over one hour and nine minutes of an approximately three-hour pay-per-view. However, the first match, contested in 1988, involved only twenty men, and lasted 33 minutes of the two-hour broadcast. The 2011 Royal Rumble had a 40-man field, out of whom Alberto Del Rio was victorious.
Although most eliminations are caused by active participants, eliminations caused by other means have occurred, and have been ruled legitimate, including self-eliminations (such as Andre the Giant jumping out of the ring after seeing a snake in 1989, Kane eliminating himself in 1999 and Drew Carey eliminating himself in 2001; however Randy Savage jumping over the top rope in 1992 was not ruled as self-elimination), elimination from previously-eliminated participates (such as The Undertaker eliminating Maven in 2002, Kurt Angle eliminating Shawn Michaels in 2005 and Kane eliminating CM Punk in 2014) and elimination from non-participants (such as The Miz eliminating John Cena in 2011). Furthermore, if an injured wrestler is taken away by medical staff, he can return to the match as long as the match is still ongoing (such as Steve Austin in 1999), but if the match ends without the injured wrestler returning, he is deemed eliminated (such as Scotty 2 Hotty in 2005).
Royal Rumble matches are generally stipulated to involve no disqualifications.
Since 1993, the winner of the Royal Rumble match is traditionally awarded a title match for WWE’s top championship, currently called the WWE World Heavyweight Championship at WrestleMania.
With the brand extension introduced in mid-2002, the 30 entrants from 2003 to 2006 consisted of 15 wrestlers from both the Raw and SmackDown brands. At first, the winner of the match received a shot at their brand’s top champion Starting in 2004, the Rumble winner had the option of challenging any brand’s champion. For instance, Chris Benoit switched brands after winning the 2004 Royal Rumble and won the World Heavyweight Championship. From 2007 to 2010, participants from the ECW brand competed along with the Raw and SmackDown brands, with the ECW World Championship added as an option for the winner to challenge for. During ECW’s participation, the entries for each brand were not evenly divided.
WWE’s top championship has been booked as on the line during the Royal Rumble match on two occasions. In 1992, the vacant WWF World Heavyweight Championship was contested in the 1992 Royal Rumble match

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, eventually won by Ric Flair, while in 2016 Roman Reigns was scheduled to defend his WWE World Heavyweight Championship as a participant of that year’s Royal Rumble match. This marked the first time that a reigning champion had to defend his title in the match, which was ultimately won by Triple H.
From 2001 to 2007, the Royal Rumble match winner had gone on to win a World Championship title at WrestleMania. After winning the 2008 match, John Cena became the first winner to use his championship opportunity at an event (No Way Out 2008) other than WrestleMania. He also became the first since The Rock in 2000 to win the Royal Rumble match but fail to win the title in his championship opportunity.
The Royal Rumble winner may also choose to put his championship opportunity on the line in a match. This was first done in 1996, when Shawn Michaels risked his WrestleMania XII title shot in a match against Owen Hart at In Your House 6. The second time was in 1999, when Stone Cold Steve Austin offered to forfeit his title opportunity to the Big Boss Man, who won third place in the Rumble (Austin was actually the runner-up in that rumble, but the winner, Vince McMahon himself, had voluntarily given up his title opportunity) if McMahon could beat him in a cage match at St. Valentine’s Day Massacre: In Your House, which Austin would go on to win. The third time was in 2002, when Kurt Angle convinced Triple H to put his WrestleMania X8 championship spot on the line at No Way Out, a match which Angle won. However, Triple H would later defeat Angle and regain his WrestleMania championship spot. The fourth time was in 2006, when Randy Orton goaded Rey Mysterio into putting his main event spot at WrestleMania 22 on the line at No Way Out, a match which Orton won. Mysterio was eventually reinserted into the main event at WrestleMania, making it a triple threat match, and went on to win the World Heavyweight Championship. On the February 25, 2013 edition of Raw, John Cena successfully defended his WrestleMania 29 WWE Championship opportunity in a match against CM Punk. On February 22, 2015 at Fastlane, Roman Reigns defended his WrestleMania 31 WWE World Heavyweight Championship opportunity against Daniel Bryan.
In 2000, The Rock was declared the victor, as the storyline intended. However, it was later revealed that his feet had actually touched before those of The Big Show. A singles match was held at No Way Out, the event following the Royal Rumble, to determine who received the Wrestlemania title shot against the reigning champion Triple H. Big Show won with the help of Shane McMahon. Rock then defeated Big Show in a rematch in March on Raw with the help of Vince McMahon, which earned him a title shot and converted the match at WrestleMania into a triple-threat that was later made a four-way match when Linda McMahon inserted the recently retired Mick Foley into the match.
WWE has booked several Royal Rumble matches outside of the annual Royal Rumble event:
WWE has also booked two Royal Rumble matches which were never televised, both in 1994. The first, a 30-man Royal Rumble on January 17, was won by Owen Hart, last eliminating Fatu. The second, an 18-man Royal Rumble match, took place on May 9 in Osaka, Japan and was won by The Undertaker, who last eliminated Bam Bam Bigelow.
Top 20 individual longest times in a single Royal Rumble match. As of the 2016 Royal Rumble.
(Note: Bold indicates the winner of that year’s match.)
Only wrestlers who have spent more than 3 cumulative hours are shown.
As of the 2016 Royal Rumble.
Only wrestlers who spent 10 seconds or less in a single rumble are shown.
As of the 2016 Royal Rumble.
Several times, wrestlers were drawn to compete in the match but did not actually compete. Their participation is counted as zero seconds:
Top wrestlers with most eliminations in a single match. Only wrestlers with at least eight eliminations are shown. As of the 2016 Royal Rumble.
Top wrestlers with the most eliminations. Only wrestlers with at least 20 eliminations are shown.
As of the 2016 Royal Rumble.
Only wrestlers with at least 9 appearances are shown.
As of the 2016 Royal Rumble.
In March 2007, WWE released a complete DVD box set titled Royal Rumble: The Complete Anthology, which showcases every Royal Rumble event in its entirety, up to the 2007 Royal Rumble.

George Williams College, Chicago

George Williams College was a college located in the northwestern corner of Hyde Park, Chicago. The college was an expansion of a summer camp founded by the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) on the shores of Geneva Lake, Wisconsin in 1886. The college remained in Hyde Park from its found in 1890 until 1965, when it moved to Downers Grove, Illinois. Subsequently, the Hyde Park campus was demolished in 1989.
George Williams College can trace its origin to a summer camp founded on the shores of Geneva Lake, Wisconsin by YMCA leaders I. E. Brown, William Lewis, and Robert Weidensall in 1886. This camp was created to serve as a professional YMCA training school. Later, the camp moved to Hyde Park in 1890, where it transformed into a college. In Hyde Park, it went by a variety of names: Training School of the YMCA (1890–96) the Secretarial Institute and Training School (SITS) (1896–1903), the Institute and Training School of the YMCA (ITS) (1903–13), and the YMCA College or Association College (1913–33). In 1933 its name was changed for the last time, to “George Williams College”. During the 20th century, the college “was a national center for the development of group work as a profession. It was also an early pioneer in the idea of holistic health, with the integration of body, mind and spirit that was key concept within the YMCA movement.” By the late 1965, the college moved to the mostly-white Downers Grove, Illinois, which caused issues with racial tensions. By the 1980s, the school was flagging, and was eventually absorbed by Aurora University. In 1989, the abandoned Hyde Park campus was demolished to make room for new development opportunities

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Meshuggah

Meshuggah /məˈʃʊɡə/ is a Swedish extreme metal band from Umeå, formed in 1987. Meshuggah’s line-up consists of founding members vocalist Jens Kidman and lead guitarist Fredrik Thordendal, drummer Tomas Haake, who joined in 1990, rhythm guitarist Mårten Hagström, who joined in 1992 and bassist Dick Lövgren since 2004.
Meshuggah first attracted international attention with the 1995 release Destroy Erase Improve for its fusion of fast-tempo death metal, thrash metal and progressive metal elements. Since its 2002 album Nothing, Meshuggah has switched from seven-string to downtuned eight-string guitars. Meshuggah has become known for their innovative musical style, complex, polymetered song structures and polyrhythms. Meshuggah was labelled as one of the ten most important hard rock and heavy metal bands by Rolling Stone and as the most important band in metal by Alternative Press. Meshuggah has found little mainstream success as yet, but is a significant act in extreme underground music. Nevertheless, Meshuggah has begun to gain attention and respect among more mainstream audiences since the late 2000s, having also inspired the djent movement within progressive metal.
Since its formation, Meshuggah has released seven studio albums, six EPs and eight music videos. The band has performed in various international festivals, including Ozzfest and Download, and embarked on the obZen world tour from 2008 to 2010. Meshuggah’s latest studio album, Koloss, was released on March 23, 2012. Nothing and the albums that followed have all charted on the Billboard 200. Meshuggah’s most commercially successful album, Koloss, debuted at number 17 in the USA, with first week sales of 18,342 copies. In 2006 and 2009, the band was nominated for a Swedish Grammy Award.

In 1985, guitarist Fredrik Thordendal formed a band in Umeå, a college town in northern Sweden with a population of 105,000. The band, originally named Metallien, recorded a number of demo tapes, after which it disbanded. Thordendal, however, continued playing under a different name with new band members.
Meshuggah was formed in 1987 by vocalist and guitarist Jens Kidman, and took the name Meshuggah from the Yiddish word for “crazy”. The band recorded several demos before Kidman left, which prompted the remaining members to disband. Kidman then formed a new band, Calipash, with guitarist Thordendal, bassist Peter Nordin and drummer Niklas Lundgren. Kidman, who also played guitar, and Thordendal decided to restore the name Meshuggah for the new band.
On February 3, 1989, Meshuggah released the self-titled, three-song EP Meshuggah, which is commonly known as Psykisk Testbild (a title that could be translated as “Psychological Test-Picture”). This 12″ (30 cm) vinyl EP had only 1,000 copies released, sold by local record store Garageland. The EP’s back cover features the band members with cheese doodles on their faces.
After replacing drummer Niklas Lundgren with Tomas Haake in 1990, Meshuggah signed a contract with German heavy metal record label Nuclear Blast and recorded its debut full-length album, Contradictions Collapse. The LP, originally entitled (All this because of) Greed, was released on January 1, 1991. The album received positive reviews, but was not a commercial success. Soon after, Kidman decided to concentrate on vocals, and rhythm guitarist Mårten Hagström, who had already played in a band with Haake when they were in sixth grade, was recruited. The new lineup recorded the EP None at Tonteknik Recordings in Umeå in 1994 for release later that year. A Japanese version was also released, including lyrics printed in Japanese.
During this period, Thordendal, who was working as a carpenter, severed the tip of his left middle finger, while Haake injured his hand in a grinder accident. As a result, the band was unable to perform for several months. Thordendal’s fingertip was later reattached, and he went on to make a full recovery. The Selfcaged EP was recorded in April and May 1994, but its release was delayed to later in 1995 due to the accidents.
In January 1995, Meshuggah undertook a short European tour organized by its record label Nuclear Blast. Afterwards, the band returned to the studio to record the album Destroy Erase Improve at Soundfront Studios in Uppsala, with Daniel Bergstrand as a producer. Shortly thereafter, the band went on a European tour supporting Machine Head for two months. During the tour, Nordin became ill and experienced difficulties with his inner ear balance. Due to the resulting chronic dizziness and vertigo, Nordin was forced to leave the tour and travel to Sweden. Machine Head’s bassist Adam Duce offered to cover his absence; however, Meshuggah decided to continue as a four-piece. Sometimes Thordendal played bass, while other times the band performed with two guitars. In this lineup, Hagström would use a pitch shifter to play his guitar at an octave lower than usual.
Destroy Erase Improve was released in July 1995, with positive response from critics for the “heady tempos and abstract approach”. Kidman described the album cover: “The title fits the pictures we cut out and stole from reference books in the library.”
In mid-1995, Meshuggah had a short tour with Swedish band Clawfinger in Scandinavia and Germany. Nordin had to leave the band because of his sickness and was replaced by bassist Gustaf Hielm during the tour. In late 1995, Meshuggah went on a month-long tour with Hypocrisy.
During 1996 and 1997, Thordendal worked on his solo album Sol Niger Within, which was released in March 1997 in Scandinavia and in April in Japan. He also hosted Mats/Morgan Band’s debut. In 1997, Meshuggah recorded an unreleased demo, toured occasionally, and played a few concerts in its hometown. In May, Meshuggah moved to Stockholm to be closer to its management and the record industry in general.
The EP The True Human Design was recorded and released in late 1997. It contained one new song entitled “Sane”, and one live and two alternate versions of Destroy Erase Improve’s opening track “Future Breed Machine”. Thordendal’s solo album Sol Niger Within was simultaneously released in the United States, and Meshuggah started to plan its next album at the end of the year.
Hielm officially joined the band in January 1998 after more than two years as a session member. Nuclear Blast re-released Contradictions Collapse with the addition of songs from the None EP. In May 1998, the title of the next album, Chaosphere, was reported and recording began. Immediately after recording the album, Meshuggah went on a short US tour, and the album was released later in November 1998. Shortly after the release, Meshuggah toured Scandinavia with Entombed.
In early 1999, Meshuggah joined Slayer on their U.S. tour. After the new album and the live performances, Meshuggah was beginning to be recognized by mainstream music, guitar, drum and metal magazines. In mid-1999, Meshuggah performed in several Swedish concerts. The band started to write some new material but reported in mid-2000 that “songwriting isn’t that dramatic, but we’re getting there slowly”. While fans were waiting for the next album, a collection of demos (from the Psykisk Testbild EP), remixes and unreleased songs from the Chaosphere sessions were released as the Rare Trax album. Hielm left the band in July 2001 for unclear reasons. Meshuggah joined Tool on a lengthy tour, playing for more than 100,000 people total.
In March 2002, Meshuggah recorded three-track demos with programmed drums in their home studio, which were based on Haake’s sample Drumkit from Hell. The upcoming album was recorded in five to six weeks in May and was produced by the band at Dug-Out Studios in Uppsala and at its home studio in Stockholm. The last-minute decision to join 2002’s Ozzfest tour forced the band to mix the album in two days and master it in one. Meshuggah immediately went on another US tour after finishing the recording.
The album Nothing was released in August 2002, selling 6,525 copies during its first week in the US and reaching No. 165 on the Billboard 200. With this album, Meshuggah became the first band in the history of Nuclear Blast Records to crack the Billboard 200 and also became the first band signed to Nuclear Blast to be reviewed in Rolling Stone magazine. Meshuggah’s previous two releases, 1998’s Chaosphere and 1995’s Destroy Erase Improve, have sold 38,773 and 30,712 copies to that date, respectively. The CD booklet of Nothing has no liner notes, lyrics, or credits, only a hint of one word: ingenting, which is Swedish for nothing. All of this information is available on the CD-ROM. At the end of 2002, the band went on another US tour with Tool and a headlining tour of its own.
In 2003, Hagström hinted at the direction of the band’s next album by saying, “There’s only one thing I really feel that is important. We’ve never measured our success in terms of sales, because we’re quite an extreme band. It’s more that people understand where we’re coming from. I get more out of a fan coming up and saying that we’ve totally changed their way of looking on metal music, than having like 200 kids buy it. I mean, it would be nice for the money, but that’s not why we’re in it. So what I’d like to see is that we keep progressing. Keeping the core of what Meshuggah has always been, but exploring the bar, so to speak. Destroy Erase Improve was like exploring the dynamics of the band, Chaosphere was exploring the aggressiveness, the all-out side, and Nothing is more of a sinister, dark, pretty slow album, actually. So honestly, now I don’t know where we’re going. It might be a mix of all of them.”
In February 2004, bassist Dick Lövgren joined Meshuggah. The band then recorded and released the I EP, which contains a single, 21-minute track, released on Fractured Transmitter Records. Meshuggah spent about six months in total on recording the EP. Catch Thirtythree, the only Meshuggah album on which programmed drums have been used, was released the following year in May 2005. Seven thousand copies of Catch Thirtythree were sold the first week, and it debuted at No. 170 on the Billboard 200 chart in June 2005. The video for the track “Shed” was released in June, and the previous album Nothing sold approximately 80,000 copies in the United States to that date, according to Nielsen SoundScan. Catch Thirtythree earned the band a Swedish Grammy nomination.
In December 2005, 10 years after signing its first record deal with the publishing company Warner/Chappell Music Scandinavia, Meshuggah extended its cooperation with the company. In November 2005, Haake said in an interview that the band was not content with the productions of Chaosphere and Nothing, because

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, being on tour, they had little time to devote to them.
A remixed and remastered version of Nothing with rerecorded guitars was released in a custom-shaped slipcase featuring a three-dimensional hologram card on October 31, 2006, via Nuclear Blast Records. The release also includes a bonus DVD featuring the band’s appearance at the Download 2005 festival and the official music videos of “Rational Gaze”, “Shed” and “New Millennium Cyanide Christ”.
Meshuggah returned to the studio to record obZen, which was released in March 2008. The band spent almost a year on the album, its longest recording session yet. A significant portion of the year was spent learning to perform the songs they wrote; the recording itself took six months. obZen reached No. 59 on the Billboard 200 chart, selling 11,400 U.S. copies in its first week of release and 50,000 copies after six months. With obZen, Meshuggah received more media attention and attracted new fans. The release was followed by a world tour, which started in the U.S. and proceeded to Europe, Asia and Australia.
In May 2008, Meshuggah published a music video for the song “Bleed”, which was produced by Ian McFarland and was written, directed and edited by Mike Pecci and Ian McFarland. Killswitch Productions said: “It’s extremely cool to work with a band who is willing to allow the music and imagery to speak for itself and who does not insist on themselves being the prominent focus of the video.”
In January 2009, obZen was nominated for the Swedish Grammis award in the “Best Hard Rock” category. In February 2009, Haake announced that the band was planning a concert DVD and a studio album. In April, Meshuggah was forced to cancel its Scandinavian shows in early 2009, due to Haake’s herniated disc in his lower back, which was causing problems with his right foot when playing. Haake later underwent a surgery and recovered for European summer festivals.
The concert DVD entitled Alive was released on February 5, 2010 in Europe and February 9 in North America. Thordendal started to work on a second solo album in June 2010 with the Belgian drummer Dirk Verbeuren.
The newest studio album, Koloss, was released on March 23, 2012 in Germany, on March 26 in the rest of Europe, and March 27 in North America. Koloss reached No. 17 on the Billboard Top 200, and sold 18,342 copies in its first week. In Sweden, it reached No. 12.
On February 5, 2013, Meshuggah released a free two-track EP entitled Pitch Black with Scion A/V. The EP features a previously unreleased track, “Pitch Black”, that was recorded by Fredrik Thordendal in 2003 at Fear and Loathing, in Stockholm Sweden. The second track is a live recording of “Dancers to a Discordant System” from ObZen. The track was recorded at Distortion Fest in Eindhoven, Netherlands, on December 9, 2012.
Meshuggah’s experimentation, stylistic variation and changes during its career cross several musical subgenres. Heavy metal subgenres avant-garde metal or experimental metal are umbrella terms that enable description of the career of the band in general.[a] Extreme metal crosses both thrash metal and death metal (or technical death metal), which are at root of the sound of Meshuggah’s music, which has also been described as groove metal.[b] The band is often labelled as math metal (for using elements of math rock) and progressive metal.[c] Meshuggah also incorporates elements of experimental jazz. In its review of Nothing, Allmusic describes Meshuggah as “masterminds of cosmic calculus metal—call it Einstein metal if you want”. Meshuggah’s early output was also considered alternative metal. Meshuggah creates a recognizable sonic imprint and distinct style.
Trademarks and characteristics that define Meshuggah’s sound and songwriting include polyrhythms, polymetered riff cycles, rhythmic syncopation, rapid key and tempo changes and neo-jazz chromatics.[d] Hagström notes that “it doesn’t really matter if something is hard to play or not. The thing is, what does it do to your mind when you listen to it? Where does it take you?” A trademark of Thordendal is jazz fusion-like soloing and improvisation. He is also known for the usage of a “breath controller” device. Haake is known for his cross-rhythm drumming with “jazzlike cadence”.[e] The vocal style of Jens Kidman varies between hardcore-style shouts and “robotic” death metal vocals.
In polymeters typically used by Meshuggah, the guitars might play in odd meters such as 5/16 or 17/16, while drums play in 4/4. One particular example of Haake’s use of polymeter is 4/4 against 23/16 bimeter, in which he keeps the hi-hat and ride cymbal in 4/4 time but uses the snare and double bass drums in 23/16 time. On “Rational Gaze” (from Nothing), Haake plays simple 4/4 time, hitting the snare on each third beat, for 16 bars. At the same time, the guitars and bass are playing same quarter notes, albeit in a different time signature; eventually both sides meet up again at the 64th beat. Hagström notes about the polymeters, “We’ve never really been into the odd time signatures we get accused of using. Everything we do is based around a 4/4 core. It’s just that we arrange parts differently around that center to make it seem like something else is going on.”
The early work of Meshuggah, influenced mainly by Metallica, is “simpler and more straightforward than their more recent material, but some of their more progressive elements are present in the form of time-changes and polyrhythmics, and Fredrik Thordendal’s lead playing stands out”. According to Allmusic, their debut album is a relatively immature, but original, release. Double bass drums and “angular” riffing also defined the early work of Meshuggah.
With the groundbreaking Destroy Erase Improve, Meshuggah showed fusion of death metal, thrash metal, progressive metal and technical polyrhythmic math metal. Allmusic describes the style as “weaving hardcore-style shouts amongst deceptively (and deviously) simple staccato guitar riffs and insanely precise drumming—often with all three components acting in different time signatures”. Thordendal adds the melodic element with his typical lead guitar and uses his “breath controller” device most famously on the opening track “Future Breed Machine”.
Chaosphere incorporates typically fast, still tempo changing death metal. Allmusic compares the genre also with grindcore fathers Napalm Death. Rockdetector states: “Whilst fans reveled in the maze like meanderings, critics struggled to dissect and analyze, hailing Haake’s unconventional use of dual 4/4 and 23/16 rhythm, Kidman’s mechanical staccato bark and Thordendal’s liberal usage of avant-garde jazz”.
On Nothing, Meshuggah abandons the fast tempos of Chaosphere and concentrates on slow, tuned down tempos and grooves. The album was intended to be recorded using custom-made Nevborn eight-string guitars, but the prototypes were faulty so Thordendal and Hagström used detuned Ibanez seven-string guitars instead. This technique, which involved keeping the instruments untuned during the sessions, created additional problems. When Ibanez provided Meshuggah with special eight-string guitars with two extra-low strings that worked properly after the initial release, the band re-recorded the guitar parts for Nothing and re-released it in 2006. Hagström notes that this allowed the band to go lower sonically and to attain bass sounds on guitars.
The I EP contains a single, 21-minute song of complex arrangements and was a hint of the forthcoming album, 2005’s Catch Thirtythree. The EP, which was never played live by the band, was written and recorded during jamming sessions of Haake and Thordendal. On Catch Thirtythree, Meshuggah again used eight-string guitars, but utilized programmed drums for the first time also for the release, with the exception of two songs from 2001’s compilation Rare Trax. The album was self-produced by the band and was recorded at the studio that Meshuggah shares with Clawfinger. Hagström notes, “The eight-strings really have given us a whole new musical vocabulary to work with. Part of it is the restrictions they impose: you really can’t play power chords with them; the sound just turns to mush. Instead, we concentrated on coming up with really unusual single-note parts, new tunings and chord voicings. We wanted to get as far away from any kind of conventions and traditions as we could on the album, so the guitars worked out beautifully.”
Catch Thirtythree is one 47-minute song divided into 13 sections. It is more mid-tempo guitar riff based, and a more straightforward and experimental full-length album than Chaosphere or Nothing. Nick Terry of Decibel Magazine describes the album as a four-movement symphony. Some songs still use Meshuggah’s “familiar template combining harsh vocals and nightmarish melodies over coarse, mechanically advancing, oddball tempos”, while others explore ambient sounds and quieter dynamics. The first part of Catch Thirtythree centers around two simple riffs. In the song “In Death – Is Death”, the band uses a combination of noise and silence, which is in contrast with the atypical melodies on “Dehumanization”. On “Mind’s Mirrors”, Meshuggah used electronics, programming and “robotic voices”. “Shed” incorporates tribal percussion and whispered vocals.
With 2008’s obZen, Meshuggah moved away from the experimentation of 2002’s Nothing and 2005’s Catch Thirtythree to return to the musical style of its previous albums, such as Contradictions Collapse, Destroy Erase Improve and Chaosphere, while still maintaining its focus on musical and technical innovation. The album loses some of the mathematical-like rhythmal quick changes of past releases and the melodic orchestration of Catch Thirty-Three and uses “angular” riffs, mid-tempo and common 4/4 beats. The album is a culmination of the band’s previous work. Meshuggah decided to self-produce because it sought to retain artistic control over the recording and mixing process.
For obZen, Haake returned to the drum kit most notably with his performance on the song “Bleed”. In an interview for Gravemusic.com, Haake stated, “[‘Bleed’] was a big effort for me to learn, I had to find a totally new approach to playing the double bass drums to be able to do that stuff. I had never really done anything like that before like the fast bursts that go all the way through the song basically. So I actually spent as much time practicing that track alone as I did with all of the other tracks combined. It’s kind of a big feat to change your approach like that and I’m glad we were able to nail it for the album. For a while though we didn’t even know if it was going to make it to the album.” Hagström also stated, “obZen is one of the most highly technical offerings the band has ever put to tape”. Revolver magazine confirms this statement: “At first listen, obZen seems less challenging to the listener than some of the band’s other records, and most of the songs flow smoothly from one syncopated passage to the next. However, careful examination reveals that the material is some of the group’s most complicated”.
Meshuggah has become known for its innovative musical style that evolves between each release and pushes heavy metal into new territory, and for its technical prowess.[f] Hagström comments: “We try never to repeat ourselves.” Rockdetector stated about Destroy Erase Improve: “[T]he band…stripped Metal down to the bare essentials before completely rebuilding it in a totally abstract form”. The official Meshuggah biography comments on Chaosphere by noting that “Some fans felt that Meshuggah had left their dynamic and progressive elements behind; while others thought they were only progressing naturally and focusing on their original sound.” The band’s website also describes Nothing as displaying “a very mature and convincing Meshuggah, now focusing on groove and sound…Meshuggah once again divided their fans into the ‘ecstatic’ and the ‘slightly disappointed'”. The polyrhythms can make the music sound cacophonous, like band members are playing different songs simultaneously. Listeners perceiving a polyrhythm often either extract a composite pattern that is fitted to a metric framework, or focus on one rhythmic stream while treating others as “noise”.
Rolling Stone labeled Meshuggah as “one of the ten most important hard and heavy bands”, and the Alternative Press named it the “most important band in metal.” Meshuggah has been described as virtuoso or genius-bordering musicians,[g] “recognized by mainstream music magazines, especially those dedicated to particular instruments”. In 2007, Meshuggah earned an in-depth analysis by the academic journal Music Theory Spectrum. Meshuggah has found little mainstream success but is a significant act in extreme underground music and an influence for many modern metal bands. According to guardian.co.uk, Meshuggah coined the onomatopoeic term “djent”, describing an “elastic, syncopated guitar riff”, that later gave a name to the microgenre.
Meshuggah’s music is written by Thordendal, Hagström and Haake with assistance from Kidman. During songwriting, a member programs the drums, and records the guitar and bass via computer. He presents his idea to the other members as a finished work. Meshuggah typically adheres to the original idea and rarely changes the song afterwards. Hagström explains that each member has an idea of what the others are doing conceptually, and nobody thinks exclusively in terms of a particular instrument. Kidman does not play guitar in the band anymore, but he is involved in writing riffs.
Except for when Hagström needs a soloist, he and Thordendal rarely record together. Both play guitar and bass while composing. Haake says about his songwriting, “Sometimes I’ll sample guitar parts, cut them up, pitch-shift and tweak them until I’ve built the riffs I want, just for demoing purposes. But most of the time I’ll just present the drums, and explain my ideas for the rest of the song, sing some riffs.” The band uses Cubase to record the tracks, and the guitars are routed through software amplifier modeling, because it allows them to change the amp settings even after the song was fully recorded.
Approximately once a year, Haake writes most of the band’s lyrics, with the exception of finished tracks. His lyrical inspirations are derived from books and films. Although Meshuggah does not record concept albums, the band prefers strong conceptual underpinnings in the background.
Often esoteric and conceptual, Meshuggah’s lyrics explore themes such as existentialism. Allmusic describes Destroy Erase Improve’s lyrical focus as “the integration of machines with organisms as humanity’s next logical evolutionary step”. PopMatters’ review of Nothing singles out the lyrics from “Rational Gaze”: “Our light-induced image of truth—filtered blank of its substance / As our eyes won’t adhere to intuitive lines / Everything examined. Separated, one thing at a time / The harder we stare the more complete the disintegration.” Haake explains that Catch Thirtythree’s cover, title and lyrics deal with “the paradoxes /negations /contradictions of life and death (as we see it in our finest moments of unrestrained metaphoric interpretation)”.
The main theme of obZen is “human evil”, according to Haake. The title is a play on the words “obscene” and “Zen”; in addition, “ob” means “anti” in Latin. Therefore, the title suggests that the human species has found harmony and balance in warfare and bloodshed. Revolver Magazine finds the lyrics of the title track from obZen representative of the entire album: “Salvation found in vomit and blood/Where depravation, lies, corruption/War and pain is god.” However, Haake claims, “We don’t dwell on hate and bad feelings as people. But with these songs, I think we really wanted to paint a picture lyrically that might be seen as a cautionary tale. We’re going, ‘Heads up. Here’s what some of the parts of being human are about, and this is what we can be at our worst.’ So it’s more about being aware of negative feelings than actually living them all the time.”
Media related to Meshuggah at Wikimedia Commons

Gouldsboro State Park

Gouldsboro State Park is a 2,880-acre (1,165 ha) Pennsylvania state park in Coolbaugh Township, Monroe County and Lehigh Township, Wayne County, Pennsylvania in the United States. The park includes the 250-acre (100 ha) Gouldsboro Lake. Gouldsboro State Park is located very close to Tobyhanna State Park and Pennsylvania State Game Lands 127 and 312. It is on Pennsylvania Route 507 near the small village of Gouldsboro.

Gouldsboro State Park is named for Gouldsboro, which was in turn named for Jay Gould (1836 – 1892). Gould, a native of New York, acquired an immense fortune during the Industrial Revolution, part of which included ownership of ten percent of all the rail tracks in the United States at the time of his death. One of his railroads passed by what is now the eastern boundary of the park. Gould was also the co-owner of a tannery in nearby Thornhurst. Raw hides were shipped from the western United States and Australia on the railroads owned by Gould to Gouldsboro. The hides were then sent to Thornhurst by way of wagons traversing a plank road.
As of 2006, this rail line forms the dividing line between Gouldsboro State Park and Tobyhanna State Park in Monroe County, and is owned by the Lackawanna County Railroad Authority and operated by the Delaware-Lackawanna Railroad Co. Inc. Tourist excursions on this line are operated by Steamtown National Historic Site, and run from Steamtown’s yard in Scranton to Tobyhanna.
A dam and spillway were built on an existing lake in 1895 by the North Jersey & Pocono Mountain Ice Company. The new dam allowed more ice to be harvested from the lake in winter. In 1956 the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission took over ownership of the dam. The park opened in 1958 and the dam was transferred to the DCNR in 2003.
Inspections on the dam in 1979 revealed “the dam’s drain gate was inoperable and its spillway was deteriorating”. The lake was partially drained in 1985 and 1995 for repairs to the dam and spillway, and completely drained in January 2005. Repairs included removing debris, installing a culvert, fence and erosion control measures, and replacing the spillway. Repairs were completed and the lake was refilled in January 2008.
Gouldsboro Lake is a 250-acre (100 ha) man made lake. It is open to boating, swimming, fishing and ice fishing. Gas powered boats are prohibited on Gouldsboro Lake. Electric powered and non powered boats must have current registration from any state, or a launch permit from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission. A beach at the lake is open from Memorial Day weekend through Labor Day weekend. The beach does not have lifeguards. Gouldsboro Lake is a warm water fishery. The common game fish are pickerel, yellow perch, bass, walleye, sunfish, muskellunge, and catfish. Gouldsboro Lake is also a popular ice fishing destination

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, however the thickness of the ice is not monitored by the park staff so visitors are asked to use caution when venturing out onto the ice.
Hunting is permitted at Gouldsboro State Park. Hunters are expected to follow the rules and regulations of the Pennsylvania Game Commission. The common game species are squirrels, wild turkey, white-tailed deer, black bear, and snowshoe hare. The hunting of groundhogs is prohibited. The trapping of muskrats, raccoons, beaver, mink, fox, and coyote is permitted with the proper license.
Gouldsboro State Park has five picnic areas with about 300 picnic tables. All five picnic areas are shaded and open year round. There is one pavilion with an electric hook-up.
The following state parks are within 30 miles (48 km) of Gouldsboro State Park:

Henry Hunt Snelling

Henry Hunt Snelling (8 November 1817 – 24 June 1897) was a 19th-century American photographer, editor, author and inventor.

Born in Plattsburg, New York, Snelling was the son of Josiah and Abigail (Hunt) Snelling. Snelling moved to Council Bluffs, Missouri as an infant, but received his education at a military academy in Georgetown, DC. For a time he was the librarian of the New York Lyceum, In New York, he met Edward Anthony, from whom he learned about photography. Anthony was a manufacturer of photographic supplies, and Snelling came to work for him. In 1849 he wrote The History and Practice of the Art of Photography, which was published by his brother-in-law. This is supposedly the first bound volume on photography published in America

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. He also edited the Photographic Art Journal (1851–53 and 1854–60). This was later renamed the Photographic and Fine Art Journal. The firm E. and H.T. Anthony exhausted him, and he left in 1857. He sold the Photographic and Fine Art Journal. In 1871 he moved to Cornwall, New York, where he edited and published the newspaper, Reflector of Cornwall. In 1887 he had to leave that publication because he had become blind.
Snelling married Anna L. Putnam in 1837. She was the sister of George Palmer Putnam and herself an author (Kabaosa; or, The Warriors of the West). Snelling and his wife authored plays together. Additionally, Anna translated de Brebisson’s The Collodion Process in Photography for the Production of Instantaneous Proofs. Snelling died at the Memorial Home, St. Louis, 24 Jun 1897.
Snelling was also known as an inventor. He invented an enlarging camera (1852), a blue glass filter, and announced, but did not develop, a color photographic process (1856).