Henry Hunt Snelling

Henry Hunt Snelling (8 November 1817 – 24 June 1897) was a 19th-century American photographer, editor, author and inventor.

Born in Plattsburg, New York, Snelling was the son of Josiah and Abigail (Hunt) Snelling. Snelling moved to Council Bluffs, Missouri as an infant, but received his education at a military academy in Georgetown, DC. For a time he was the librarian of the New York Lyceum, In New York, he met Edward Anthony, from whom he learned about photography. Anthony was a manufacturer of photographic supplies, and Snelling came to work for him. In 1849 he wrote The History and Practice of the Art of Photography, which was published by his brother-in-law. This is supposedly the first bound volume on photography published in America. He also edited the Photographic Art Journal (1851–53 and 1854–60). This was later renamed the Photographic and Fine Art Journal. The firm E. and H.T. Anthony exhausted him, and he left in 1857. He sold the Photographic and Fine Art Journal. In 1871 he moved to Cornwall, New York, where he edited and published the newspaper, Reflector of Cornwall. In 1887 he had to leave that publication because he had become blind.
Snelling married Anna L. Putnam in 1837. She was the sister of George Palmer Putnam and herself an author (Kabaosa

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; or, The Warriors of the West). Snelling and his wife authored plays together. Additionally, Anna translated de Brebisson’s The Collodion Process in Photography for the Production of Instantaneous Proofs. Snelling died at the Memorial Home, St. Louis, 24 Jun 1897.
Snelling was also known as an inventor. He invented an enlarging camera (1852), a blue glass filter, and announced, but did not develop, a color photographic process (1856).

Roman Catholic Diocese of Faisalabad

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Faisalabad (Lat: Dioecesis Faisalabadensis) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Pakistan.

Erected in 1960, as the Diocese of Lyallpur, the diocese was created from the Diocese of Multan. The new diocese comprised the civil districts of Faisalabad (formerly Lyallpur), Sahiwal and Jhang.
In 1977, the name of the diocese was changed to the Diocese of Faisalabad. The diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lahore. The Diocese of Faisalabad now comprises the following civil boundaries: the whole of the Faisalabad Division with the districts of Faisalahad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh and Chiniot. In the Multan Division, the districts of Sahiwal, Pakpattan and Okara. The Diocese of Faisalabad covers a 35,300 km2 area and is home to about 189,000 Catholics in 28 parishes.
The Cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul is the main church of the diocese.
The Focolare Movement was introduced into Pakistan in 1968 via the Faisalabad diocese by Father Juliano Ricchiardi, an Italian priest serving at the National Catechists’ Training Centre in Khushpur. As of 2008, according to local sources, the movement in Pakistan counted 18 Focolarinas, 11 Focolarinos and about 400 other affiliated members including lay people, nuns and priests. Focolare is a Catholic lay movement whose name means “family hearth” present in more than 180 countries and involving more than 2 million people. The movement was recognized by the Catholic Church under the official name “Work of Mary.”
The St. Thomas the Apostle Minor Seminary is the preparatory seminary of the diocese.
Joseph Coutts, appointed in 1998, was bishop until June 2012, when he was named Archbishop of Karachi.
The biggest Catholic village in Pakistan

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, Khushpur, is also located in the diocese. It celebrated its centenary in 2001. Father Parvez Emmanuel was the parish priest at the time. The village has about 7,000 Catholics and produced one bishop, John Joseph of Faisalabad, 20 priests and more than 100 nuns.
On New Year’s Day 2008 the diocese inaugurated a Quit Drugs Treatment Center, which offered free treatment and residential facilities to heroin users. The Center accommodates twenty recovering addicts, located beside Holy Rosary Church in Faisalabad. It is the only Church-affiliated drug treatment center in Faisalabad diocese. The center employs 15 people full- or part-time including the doctor, a physical therapist, two nurses, and clerical and maintenance staff.
The Universal Living Rosary Association of St. Philomena USA (ULRA) is also located in the diocese. Rosaries, Medals, Scapulars, Holy Oil, St. Philomena Cord and other printed material are given free of cost. A quarterly newsletter is published by ULRA Pakistan. Afzaal Anwar Khokhar is the ULRA representative for Pakistan. The head office in Pakistan is in Barkatpura, Faisalabad.
On July 30, 2009, tensions arose in the Christian village of Korian after pages containing Islamic inscriptions were found in front of a Christian home. Muslims accused a family there of blasphemy against Islam.
On Aug. 1, 2009, a Muslim mob raided a Christian settlement in Gojra vandalizing and looting houses and causing the deaths of eight people and injuries to many others. Fifty Christian homes were destroyed.
Pope Benedict XVI expressed profound sorrow in 2009 at anti-Christian riots in Pakistan and appealed to everyone to renounce violence and take up again the path of peace. He communicated this message in a telegram to Bishop Coutts.
On August 4, 2009, Fr. Rufin Anthony, the former vicar general of Faisalabad diocese, was appointed coadjutor bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Islamabad-Rawalpindi.
On April 17, 2010 the diocese organized a ceremony to celebrate its Golden Jubilee. Archbishop Adolfo Tito Yllana, Apostolic Nuncio to Pakistan, Bishop Joseph Coutts (Faisalabad), Archbishop Lawrence Saldanha (Lahore), and Bishop Andrew Francis (Multan) spoke on the occasion.
On 29 April 2010 Pope Benedict XVI elevated the Apostolic Prefecture of Quetta to the rank of apostolic vicariate. He appointed Fr. Victor Gnanapragasam OMI as apostolic vicar of the new ecclesiastical circumscription and the titular bishop of Timida. Fr. Victor was parish priest in Toba Tek Singh in this Diocese from 1978 to 1980, 1982- to 1986 and 1992 to 1993.
In 2014 Faisalabad diocese had 46 priests working in 23 parishes.
Pope Francis on July 3, 2013 appointed Fr. Joseph Arshad as the bishop of the Faisalabad Diocese.
The Diocese has over 2,000 teachers working in 62 educational Institutions.
Coordinates: 31°21′00″N 72°59′00″E / 31.3500°N 72.9833°E / 31.3500; 72.9833

Icelandic Glacial

Icelandic Glacial is a brand of natural bottled spring water from the Ölfus Spring in Iceland.
The Icelandic Glacial brand is owned and operated by Icelandic Water Holdings hf. based in Hlidarendi, Ölfus, Iceland. Icelandic Water Holdings controls the sole commercial rights to bottle and sell water from the Ölfus Spring. The capacity of the Spring is recognized as one of the largest in the world. Its daily overflow is more than double the total quantity of bottled water consumed worldwide, delivering a naturally replenishing supply of exceptionally pure water which is bottled for discerning consumers to enjoy.
Icelandic Water Holdings was established in April 2004 by a group of private investors and with an experienced management team, they have developed a world-class, NSF-certified bottling plant and a multi award-winning product under the Icelandic Glacial brand.
The company has been exporting Icelandic Glacial to consumers around the world since 2005. In the United States, it is distributed by Anheuser-Busch Inbev, which took a 20% ownership stake in the company in July 2007. Since that time, Icelandic Glacial has become one of the fastest growing premium bottled waters in the US

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.[citation needed] It is available at fine retailers, restaurants and hotels nationwide.[vague] In addition, Icelandic Glacial distribution is growing to include the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, France, Russia, Canada, Peru, Singapore, South Korea, China and of course Iceland.[citation needed]
In 2007, Icelandic Glacial received a Carbon Neutral certification for both product and operations from The Carbon Neutral Company. With the program developed with The Carbon Neutral Company Icelandic Glacial conducts an on-going assessment of CO2 emissions and reduces emissions wherever possible. Any unavoidable remaining CO2 emissions are then offset by investing in accredited and bonafide projects around the world to reduce carbon emissions to a net-zero level. Icelandic Glacial offset project investments have included renewable energy projects in Europe, China and India.
Icelandic Glacial uses natural renewable energy in the form of geothermal power to fuel production. The company implements a shipping policy from its mid-Atlantic location that uses otherwise empty cargo slots for shipments of product to the US and mainland Europe. The bottles are 100% recyclable including the labels and the outer box packaging uses 75% post consumer recycled materials.
The source of Icelandic Glacial Water, the Ölfus Spring in Iceland, has been deemed certifiably sustainable by Zenith International because it does not deplete or permanently damage its source.

Servando Teresa de Mier

Fray Servando Teresa de Mier (in full, José Servando Teresa de Mier Noriega y Guerra) (October 18, 1765 in Monterrey, Nuevo León, New Spain – December 3, 1827 in Mexico City) was a Roman Catholic priest, preacher, and politician in New Spain. He was a descendant of the Dukes of Granada and conquistadors of Nuevo León.

At the age of 16 he entered the Dominican Order in Mexico City. He studied philosophy and theology in the College of Porta Coeli, and was ordained a priest. By the age of 27 he had earned his doctorate and was a noted preacher.
On December 12, 1794, during the commemorations of the Virgin of Guadalupe apparition, in the presence of Viceroy Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca y Branciforte, marqués de Branciforte, Archbishop Manuel Omaña y Sotomayor and the members of the Audiencia of New Spain, Mier preached a sermon affirming that the apparitions of the Virgin of Guadalupe had happened 1750 years before, and not in 1531. He argued that the original painting of Our Lady of Guadalupe was on the cloak of Saint Thomas the Apostle, who had preached in the Americas long before Spanish conquest, and this had been re-discovered by Juan Diego. In the beginning nobody said anything about the sermon but one week later, the Archbishop Nuñez de Haro, condemn him to the excomunion, prison and exile in Spain for 10 years. This sermon with its bold revision of Mexican history and identity was seen as a provocation. Our Lady of Guadalupe represented an intense and highly localized religious sensibility that Creole leaders such as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla would later utilize in their opposition to Spanish rule as a symbol of Mexico.
For his “disrespect”, Archbishop Nuñez de Haro condemned Mier to ten years exile in the convent of Las Caldas del Besaya, in Cantabria, Spain; a perpetual ban from teaching, preaching or hearing confessions; and the loss of his doctoral degree.
In 1796, he was granted permission to present his case to the Council of the Indies. However, on his return from the Council, he took the wrong road and was arrested again. This time he was confined to the Franciscan convent in Burgos. In 1801, he escaped and took refuge in Bayonne, France. From Bayonne he passed to Bordeaux and later to Paris. There he was interpreter for the rich Peruvian José Sarea, Count of Gijón.
Together with Simón Rodríguez, Simón Bolívar’s former teacher, he opened an academy in Paris to teach Spanish and to translate the Atala of François-René de Chateaubriand. (The Atala was set in Louisiana, with an Indian heroine.) Mier also wrote a dissertation against Constantin-François de Chasseboeuf, comte de Volney.
In Paris, he came to know Lucas Alamán, then traveling as a student but later an important conservative politician in Mexico, Baron Alexander von Humboldt, the Duke of Montmorency, and Chateaubriand. In 1802, he left the Dominican Order and became a secular priest in Rome.
When he returned to Madrid, he was again apprehended, this time for a satire he had written supporting Mexican independence. He was sent to the reformatory in Seville, from which he escaped in 1804. However, he was again arrested and returned to prison, where he spent three years. Then the Pope named him his domestic prelate, because he had converted two rabbis to Catholicism.
In the war between France and Spain, he returned to Spain as military chaplain of the Volunteers of Valencia. He was present at many battles. In Belchite he was taken prisoner by the French, but he was able to escape again (for the fifth time). He presented himself to General Blake, who recommended him to the Junta of Seville for his services. The Regency in Cádiz granted him an annual pension of 3,000 pesos.
He moved to London, where he collaborated with José María Blanco on El Español, a newspaper that supported the independence movements in Latin America.
In London, he met the Spanish revolutionary Francisco Javier Mina. Mina convinced him to join an expedition to New Spain to fight for its independence. They sailed for New Spain on May 15, 1816. With the capture of the insurgents’ fort at Soto la Marina on June 13, 1817, Mier was taken prisoner again, this time by the royalists. He was sent to the castle of San Carlos de Perote, thence to the dungeons of the Inquisition, and finally, in 1820, to Havana. Escaping for a sixth time, he fled to Philadelphia, where he remained until the establishment of Mexican independence.
In February 1822, he returned to Mexico, at Veracruz, but was again taken prisoner and held at the castle of San Juan de Ulúa, still in control of the Spanish. The first Mexican constituent congress was able to secure his release; he became a deputy for Nuevo León.
He opposed the Mexican Empire under Agustín de Iturbide, and was arrested again. He was imprisoned in the convent of Santo Domingo, but on January 1, 1823 he escaped again, for the seventh and last time.
He was elected a deputy to the second constituent congress. On December 13, 1823, he delivered his famous speech “Discurso de las profecias” (loosely translated, “Prophetic Discourse”). In this speech he argued for a centralized republic or in the event of a federal system being adopted, for its being in moderation. He was among the signers of the Act Constituting the Federation and of the Federal Constitution of the United States of Mexico. Mexico’s first president, Guadalupe Victoria, invited him to live in the palace.
In 1797 wrote a letter where he confirms that the original date of the apparition of the virgin Guadalupe was celebrated by the mexica natives in September 8 (of the Julian calendar), and by the Spanish in December 12.
Nearing death, he invited his friends to a party to bid him farewell on November 16

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, 1827. He gave a speech justifying his life and opinions, and died on December 3, 1827. He was interred with great honor in the church of Santo Domingo. In 1861 his body was exhumed, together with 12 others. All the bodies were mummified.
The mummies were exhibited under the claim they were victims of the Inquisition. Some of the mummies, including Mier’s, were sold to an Italian who accepted the claim. His mummy was later shown in Brussels, but what became of his remains after that is unknown.
His name is inscribed in letters of gold on the Wall of Honor of the Legislative Palace of San Lázaro, the building that today houses the Chamber of Deputies in Mexico City.
Mier published many speeches, sermons and letters on religion and politics, including the following:

Mohammad Jusuf

Andi Mohammad Jusuf Amir (born in Kajuara, Bone, South Sulawesi, Dutch East Indies, 23 June 1928 – died in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, 8 September 2004 at the age of 76 years), more commonly known as “M. Jusuf”, was an Indonesian military General and a witness to the signing of the Supersemar document transferring power from President Sukarno to General Suharto.

Jusuf was born in Kayuara, Bone, South Sulawesi on 23 June 1928.
Not much is known about Jusuf’s early life other than the fact he was a Bugis aristocrat as witnessed by the titular name “Andi” in front of his name. Jusuf would later denounce his aristocratic background by dropping Andi from his name.
When Nationalist leaders, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta proclaimed Indonesia’s Independence on 17 August 1945, Jusuf showed his support by joining the Devotion of the Indonesian People from Sulawesi (KRIS). Towards the end of 1945, with the Dutch Government preparing to retake Indonesia, Jusuf and his fellow KRIS members sailed for Java to join in the fighting.
Jusuf actually started his military career in the Navy, becoming the adjutant of Navy Lieutenant Colonel Kahar Muzakkar at the 10th Navy Staff Commando headquarters in Yogyakarta.
By 1949, Jusuf had switched over to the Army, becoming a part of the Military Police before becoming a member of the Eastern Indonesia Military Commission.
In 1950, Jusuf became the adjutant of Colonel Alexander Evert Kawilarang, the Commander of KODAM VII/ Wirabuana whose security brief covered the whole of Eastern Indonesia. In this position, Jusuf participated in putting down rebellions by the Republic of South Maluku (RMS). Jusuf then continued his military career, serving as a Regimental Chief of Staff in Manado, an Operations Assistant to the Commander of KODAM VII/Wirabuana, and the Head of the General Reserves.
During the mid-1950s there was a concern among the people of Sulawesi that the Central Government in Jakarta was not catering to their needs. They were calls made for decentralization in all aspects of Governance, ranging from economic development to security.
Being a soldier, Jusuf was interested in the decentralization of security matters and along with like-minded colleagues came to the conclusion that the Sulawesinese should be responsible for the security in their own region. Jusuf also showed concern by the fact that KODAM VII/Wirabuana’s security brief covered all of Eastern Indonesia whereas the KODAMs in Western Indonesia had a specific area to cover.
This concern for decentralization culminated in the Permesta statement which was signed by important figures in Sulawesi (including Jusuf) on 2 March 1957. The statement also declared a state of emergency in Eastern Indonesia. At this time, Jusuf became an operations officer for Permesta.
It was not long however, before Jusuf abandoned the movement. In May 1957, Army Chief of Staff Abdul Haris Nasution, authorized the formation of KODAM XIV/Hasanuddin, KODAM/South East Sulawesi and KODAM XVI/Udayana to cover the security of Sulawesi. With his request now fulfilled, there was no reason for Jusuf to stay with Permesta. Instead, Jusuf became a spy, reporting the results of meetings to the Central Government who were suspicious that Permesta was a separatist movement.
Jusuf dropped his charade with Permesta in May 1958 with his appointment as Commander of KODAM/South East Sulawesi. From his position, Jusuf assisted the Central Government in putting down the Permesta movement.
In October 1959, Jusuf was transferred to KODAM XIV/Hasanuddin to become its Commander. As Commander of KODAM XIV/Hasanuddin, Jusuf was responsible for the security of South Sulawesi.
In August 1964, Jusuf was named as Minister of Industry. Although this was a civilian post, it was not a surprise that Jusuf was appointed to this position as Sukarno had other members of ABRI in his Cabinet for reasons other than defense and security (Example: Lieutenant General Hidayat as Minister of Telecommunications and Ali Sadikin of the Marines serving as Minister of Transportation).
On 11 March 1966, Jusuf attended a Cabinet meeting at the Presidential Palace, the first since Sukarno reshuffled the Cabinet at the end of February. The meeting did not last long before Sukarno, after receiving a note from the Commander of his Bodyguards, suddenly left the room. When the meeting was over, Jusuf and the Minister of Veterans’ Affairs, Basuki Rachmat, went outside the Presidential Place to join Amirmachmud the Commander of KODAM V/Jaya. Jusuf was then updated on what happened and was informed that Sukarno had left for Bogor by helicopter because it was not secure in Jakarta.
Jusuf then suggested that the three of them go to Bogor to provide from moral support for Sukarno. The three then went to the residence of Lieutenant General Suharto, the Commander of the Army who had established a position as Sukarno’s strongest political opponent. According to Amirmachmud, Suharto asked the three Generals to tell Sukarno of his readiness to restore security should the President order it.
At Bogor, the three met with Sukarno who was unhappy with the security and with Amirmachmud’s insistence that everything was secure. Sukarno then began discussing options with the three Generals before finally Sukarno then began discussing options with Basuki, Jusuf, and Amirmachmud before finally asking them how he can take care of the situation. Jusuf and Basuki was silent, but Amirmachmud that Sukarno give Suharto some powers and govern Indonesia with him so that everything can be secured. The meeting then disbanded as Sukarno began preparing a Presidential Decree.
It was dusk when the Decree that would become Supersemar was finally prepared and awaiting Sukarno’s signature. Sukarno had some last minute doubts but Jusuf, together with the two Generals and Sukarno’s inner circle in the Cabinet who had also made the trip to Bogor encouraged him to sign. Sukarno finally signed and handed Supersemar to Basuki to be passed on to Suharto.
There is controversy over Jusuf’s role in Supersemar. One account states that Jusuf came to Bogor with a pink folder with Supersemar already pre-prepared on a paper with the logo of the Army on it and that there was four Generals instead of three; the fourth General being Maraden Panggabean. Sukarno was then intimidated at gun point by Basuki and Panggabean before signing the pre-prepared Supersemar.
Jusuf also managed to get hold of a copy of Supersemar.
On 13 March, Sukarno summoned Jusuf, Basuki, and Amirmachmud. Sukarno was angry that Suharto had banned the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and told the three Generals that Supersemar did not contain such instructions. Sukarno then ordered that a letter be produced to clarify the contents of Supersemar but nothing ever came up apart from the copies that former Cuban Ambassador, AM Hanafi collected.
As the leadership of the nation changed from Sukarno to Suharto, Jusuf continued on as Minister of Industry. It was also noteworthy that although holding a civilian post, Jusuf’s military career continued on as he continued to receive promotions from this position.
In April 1978, Jusuf was appointed to the position of the Commander of ABRI while concurrently taking on the position of Minister of Defense and Security.
As Commander, Jusuf was commissioned by Suharto to start a process of integrating (Memanunggalkan) ABRI with the people. Jusuf would later on say that he was not sure of what this order meant, but took it to mean that he was to make ABRI neutral in politics instead of taking Golkar’s side. In this he was successful as in the 1982 Legislative Elections, Golkar did not get the active support from ABRI that it enjoyed in the previous two Legislative Elections that it competed in.
Jusuf was also responsible for the ABRI Enters the Villages (ABRI Masuk Desa) program. In this program, ABRI soldiers were sent to rural areas to help with infrastructure development.
During his term as Commander of ABRI, Jusuf developed a reputation as General who was interested in the welfare of his men. He regularly toured the regions to visit the soldiers and enquire about their families and conditions. This made him extremely popular in the ranks of ABRI at the expense of his relationship with Suharto, who began to saw Jusuf as a threat.
In 1982, a top officials meeting was held and attended by Suharto, Jusuf, and Amirmachmud who then served as Minister of Home Affairs. During the meeting, Amirmachmud commented on Jusuf’s popularity and asked him to explain himself to Suharto. Sensing accusation behind the request, Jusuf lost his temper and promised Suharto that he never had any ambitions for power in doing his duties

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. Suharto’s suspicion seemed to have hurt Jusuf and never attended Cabinet meetings until he was discharged from his position in April 1983.
From 1983 to 1993, Jusuf served as Chairman of the State Audit Board (BPK). It was a job from which he expected to reach great things, considering his predecessor, Umar Wirahadikusumah who went on to become Vice President. However, that was the end of his involvement with the Government.
Jusuf had a close relationship with Jusuf Kalla and at one stage considered showing Kalla the copy of Supersemar which he retrieved from 1966. Jusuf changed his mind and showed Kalla as photocopied version instead.
When Jusuf announced his intentions to produce a memoir on his life, there was widespread expectation on what his account of Supersemar would be like (out of the 3 Generals who witnessed the signing of Supersemar, only Amirmachmud had produced his account). At first, Suharto trusted Jusuf to publish the memoir on his own but changed his mind, asking Jusuf to let the State Secretariat publish it. Jusuf rejected this offer.
In his retired life, Jusuf was active in social activities and Headed a foundation in charge of running a mosque as well contributing to the running of a hospital.
Jusuf died on 8 September 2004
Jusuf was married to Elly Saelan, with whom he had one son.
Although Amirmachmud had subtly accused him of being ambitious, Jusuf remained a close friend with his fellow Supersemar eyewitness. Before Amirmachmud died, he requested that Jusuf attended the funeral. However, Jusuf was unable to attend Amirmachmud’s funeral. Jusuf also received a secret letter from Amirmachmud.

Kåkbrinken

Kåkbrinken (Swedish: “The [Ramshackle] House Slope”) is a street in Gamla stan, the old town of Stockholm, Sweden. Stretching from the western waterfront Munkbroleden to the central square Stortorget, it forms a parallel street to Yxsmedsgränd, Solgränd, and Bedoirsgränd, while being crossed by Munkbrogatan le coq sportif outlet, Lilla Nygatan, Stora Nygatan, Västerlånggatan, and Prästgatan.

First mentioned in 1477, and in more detail in 1496, the street is called Kakbringkin, kak being old Swedish for modern Swedish kåk, today meaning “ramshackle house” or “prison”, but at the time referring to a pillory placed on Stortorget. The pillory is first mentioned in connection to the so-called “Käpplinge murders” (Käpplingemorden) in the first half of the 15th century – the story of a group of German burghers who trapped a large number of prominent citizens in a hovel on Blasieholmen (at the time called Käpplinge) and burned them in. The Germans are said to have been led from the Royal Palace to the pillory. A copper statue of a man holding a birch in his right hand, placed on top of the pillory in 1602, was replaced in 1647 by a new one in bronze still preserved in the Town Hall. The pillory was moved to Norrmalmstorg in 1776, and from there to Eriksbergsplan in 1810.
On a map dated 1733, the upper part of the street, between Stortorget and Västerlånggatan, is called Kåkbrinken, while the lower part is given several names: Kocks gränd (referring to the burgher Ragvald Kock); Jokum bagares, Bagare gränd, Schultens gränd, and Nedre Schult gränd (referring to the baker Joachim Schult); Söte Gudmunds gränd Söte gummans gränd (“Alley of the Sweet Old Woman”, Gudmund is also a proper name), Lasse Månssons gränd, Björn Perssons gränd, Mäster Eriks gränd (referring to men with those names), and Påfvel murmästares gränd (“Alley of Masonry master Paul”). Before the names of the streets of Gamla stan were fixed in 1885, the name ‘Kåkbrinken’ was used for various parts of its present extension.
In the corner of Prästgatan and Kåkbrinken is a runestone in the wall, carrying the inscription “Torsten and Frögunn had the stone erected after their son.”. The stone was probably brought to Stockholm to be used as building material, from where is not known. As the female name Frögunn is known as a pagan name, the stone is believed to be from around 1000, the stone thus being about 200 years older than the city.
A laser range scanner analysis made in 2002, showed variations in stroke patterns in the grooves of the stone, and that the stone was probably carved by a master carver and an apprentice. Its one of three runestones found in the old town: A second, U 274, originally located in a wall by the southern city gate near Slussen, is today kept in the Museum of Medieval Stockholm. It contains the words “Karl and Adisla had [this stone] erected [after] Arnsil, [their] father” and is similar in style to stones found in Södermanland, south of Stockholm. The third runestone, U 54, is today lost but was once located in a stairway in the church Riddarholmskyrkan.
Coordinates: 59°19′27.3″N 18°04′07.4″E / 59.324250°N 18.068722°E / 59.324250; 18.068722

Arion (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Arion or Areion (Ancient Greek: ‘Ἀρίων, Ἀρείων, gen.: Ἀρίωνος, Ἀρείωνος) is a divinely-bred

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, extremely swift immortal horse which, according to the Latin poet Sextus Propertius, was endowed with speech.
Arion’s siring by Poseidon in stallion form vary by author: according to the Pseudo-Apollodorus, the horse was foaled by Demeter while she was “in the likeness of a Fury”; Pausanias reported that, according to Antimachus, the horse was the foal of Gaia, the Earth, herself. In the Epic Cycle Arion was mounted most notably by Adrastus, king of Argos.
The earliest literary mention of Arion is in Homer, Iliad, XXIII, 346. Statius also made mention of the horse in his 1st-century Latin epic poem the Thebaid, VI, 301.

On the subject of Arion, Homer said in the Iliad:
Pausanias says:
In support of the lineage they advance, Pausanias reports, the Arcadians cite some verses from the Iliad (23.346 quoted above) and the Thebaid (an early Greek epic of uncertain authorship, of which only fragments remain). Pausanias says that “in the Thebaid it is said that Adrastus fled from Thebes: ‘Wearing wretched clothes, and with him dark-maned Areion’ “. Latin scholia assert that these verses indicate that Neptune was Arion’s sire. But Pausanias goes on to quote Antimachus of Colophon as saying that Arion was a child of the Earth (Gaia):
According to Pausanias, Heracles, waging war with the Eleans, acquired this horse from Oncus. The son of Zeus would have thus ridden upon Arion when he seized Elis. Thereafter, Heracles gave Arion to Adrastus; this is why Antimachus said of Arion: “Adrastus was the third lord who tamed him.”
The Pseudo-Apollodorus (III, 6, 8) recounts that in the defeat of the Argives, the same battle in which Eteocles and Polynices slew each other, Adrastus alone among the Argive leaders survived, saved by his horse Arion that Demeter, in the likeness of a Fury, had conceived by Poseidon. The scholiasts of the Iliad (XXIII, 347) and of Lycophron (153) attribute to him the same origin.

Barbados passport

A Barbados passport is a travel document issued to citizens of Barbados, in accordance with Citizenship Act (CAP. 186) from 1978, the Immigration Act (CAP. 190) from 1997, and the Barbados Constitution, for the purpose of facilitating international travel. It allows the bearer to travel in foreign countries and the Commonwealth of Nations, in accordance with visa requirements, and facilitates the process of securing assistance from Barbados consular officials abroad, if necessary.
A Barbados passport is a document for valid proof of citizenship. The passport is also a Caricom passport, as Barbados is a member of the Caribbean Community. There are three types of passport booklets: regular, service, or diplomatic passports. Despite the placement of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) logo at the top of the document’s cover-page, Barbados passports are issued by the Immigration Department under the auspices of the Office of the Prime Minister, and at the Diplomatic Missions and Honorary Consulates of Barbados abroad.

All applicants aged 16 or above are entitled to apply for a standard Barbados passport. Minors aged 15 and below may remain on their parent’s passport.
Passport fees (Effective 1 December 2010)
Barbados passports may also be issued outside Barbados, for which fees vary per country.
Barbados passports are dark blue in colour, with logo of CARICOM and the words CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY followed by BARBADOS inscribed on top of the booklet. The Barbados coat of arms is prominently emblazoned in the centre of the cover page, followed on the bottom by the inscription of the words PASSPORT on ordinary passports, and DIPLOMATIC PASSPORT on diplomatic passports.
The following information is printed on the identification page, in: English, French, and Spanish.
The standards are:
Barbados passports contain on their inside cover the following words in English only:
According to the 2013 Visa Restrictions Index, the Barbados passport was ranked no. 22 in travel freedom and visa-free access. Barbados was placed after The United States (no. 2), Canada (no. 4), Argentina (no. 18), Brazil (no. 19), and Chile (no. 21) in The Americas. The Barbados passport also ranks, jointly with the Bahamas passport, 1st among CARICOM passport holders that enjoy travel freedom and visa-free access le coq sportif outlet.
Holders of a Barbados passport may travel without a visa, or receive a visa upon arrival, to many other countries. As of 28 May 2009, Barbados signed a short-stay visa waiver agreement with the European Union. The agreement allows citizens of Barbados to visit the countries of Europe who are members of the Schengen Area for up to three months in any six-month period without a visa. Similarly, citizens of Europe (who countries are members of the Schengen Area) will be able to visit Barbados for the same period without a visa.
1 A) Includes Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, and former British plantations, crown colonies, colonies, protectorates, protected states, mandates, trust territories and other British possessions. B) The Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey are not part of the European Union, but Manxmen and Channel Islanders are citizens of the European Union; the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey, and Manxmen and Channel Islanders themselves (unless they qualify and apply for recognition of a change in status), are however excluded from the benefits of the Four Freedoms of the European Union. C) The Government of the United Kingdom also issue passports to British nationals who are not British citizens with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and who are also not otherwise citizens of the European Union.
2 Open border with Schengen Area.
3 Russia is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here.
4 Turkey is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. Turkey has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe called Turkish Thrace.
5 Azerbaijan and Georgia (Abkhazia; South Ossetia) are transcontinental countries. Both have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus.
6 Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country. Kazakhstan has a small part of its territories located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe.
7 Armenia (Nagorno-Karabakh) and Cyprus (Northern Cyprus) are entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe.
8 Egypt is a transcontinental country in North Africa and Western Asia. Egypt has a small part of its territory in Western Asia called Sinai peninsula.
9 Partially recognized.
10 Not recognized by any other state.
11 Special Administrative Regions of the People’s Republic of China
12 The Soviet Union was a transcontinental country located in Eurasia

1974 Tour de France

The 1974 Tour de France was the 61st Tour de France, taking place June 27 to July 21, 1974. It consisted of 22 stages over 4098 km, ridden at an average speed of 35.241 km/h. Eddy Merckx was attempting to win his fifth Tour de France in as many races, while Luis Ocaña and Joop Zoetemelk were notable absentees from the 1974 Tour.
In 1974 the tour made its first visit to the United Kingdom, with a circuit stage on the Plympton By-pass, near Plymouth, England.
The race was won by favourite Eddy Merckx, who thus at that point had won all five Tours that he had entered, and had equalled Jacques Anquetil in Tour victories. Merckx also won the combination classification. Fellow Belgian Patrick Sercu won the points classification, while Spanish Domingo Perurena won the mountains classification.

The 1974 Tour de France had 13 teams, with 10 cyclists each:
Merckx, who had been absent in 1973 after winning four Tours in a row, was present again. Merckx had not been as dominant in the spring as in other years; it was his first year as a professional cyclist in which he did not win a spring classic. He did win the 1974 Giro d’Italia and the Tour de Suisse, but after winning the latter he required surgery on the perineum, five days before the 1974 Tour started.
Notable absents were Ocana and Zoetemelk. Zoetemelk was injured during the Midi Libre and was in hospital with life-threatening meningitis. Ocana had crashed in the Tour de l’Aude, gone home and was fired by his team for not communicating. Bernard Thevenet, who was considered a potential winner, had crashed several times in the 1974 Vuelta a España. He did start in the Tour, but was not yet back at his former level.
Merckx won the prologue, with his team mate Joseph Bruyere in third place. In the first stage, Bruyere was part of a breakaway, and became the new leader.
The second stage was in Plymouth, the first time that the Tour de France visited England. The riders did not like the experiment, as the British immigration officials made the cyclists wait for a long time when entering the country and again when returning to France.
Merckx collected bonus time in the sprints, and in the fourth stage took back the leading position in the general classification, with Gerben Karstens in second place. Karstens was also doing well in the points classification, and felt Merckx and Patrick Sercu, the leaders in the general and points classification, were helping each other.[notes 1] Karstens was angry and after the finish quickly went away, but forgot that he had to go to the doping control. For this, he was given ten minutes penalty time, and thus he lost his second place in the general classification. Karstens complained to the jury, and other cyclists threatened with a strike, so the jury removed the penalty after the fifth stage. Thanks to bonification seconds in that stage

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, Karstens took the leading position after that stage.
It was still close in the top of the general classification. Patrick Sercu became the new leader after the first part of the sixth stage, but Karstens regained the lead after the second part of the sixth stage, a team time trial won by Merckx’s team, Molteni. Merckx won the seventh stage, and became the next leader.
The Alps were the first serious mountains to be seen, in stage nine. Merckx won the stage, but the surprise of the day was Raymond Poulidor, who at 38 years old was still able to escape during the toughest part of the stage. This also happened in the tenth stage: Poulidor joined the crucial escape, but could not beat Merckx in the final sprint.
In the tenth stage, the hardest Alpine stage, Vicente Lopez Carril from the KAS team stayed away. Merckx was in the next group, together with Francisco Galdos and Gonzalo Aja, also from the KAS team. Aja was in third place in the general classification, so Merckx was unable to chase Lopez Carril without helping his rival Aja.
The next stages did not change the general classification. In the fifteenth stage, the Pyrenées were encountered. There was a crash that took down Galdos, now in sixth place in the general classification, and he had to leave the race. The Tour was in Spain at that point, and Basque separatist placed bombs on press and team cars. Nobody was hurt, but cyclists were scared: Spanish champion Lopez Carril did not wear his national champion’s jersey, afraid to become a target because of the Spanish flag on it.
In the sixteenth stage, with an uphill finish, Poulidor won, his first Tour stage victory since 1965. Merckx finished in fourth place, losing time to Poulidor, Lopez Carril and Pollentier.
In the seventeenth stage, Poulidor again won time, finishing second after Jean-Pierre Danguillaume, and jumped to the third place in the general classification, behind Merckx and Lopez Carril. Danguillaume also won the eighteenth stage, the last mountain stage. The favourites stayed together with Merckx, and at that point Merckx was more or less certain of the victory, with two time trials remaining, in which he normally would gain time on the others.
Poulidor battled with Lopez-Carril for the second place. After the time trial in the second part of stage 21, Poulidor captured the second place by just one second. Surprisingly, Merckx was in second place in that time trial, beaten by Michel Pollentier. In the last stage, Poulidor increased the margin to Lopez Carril to five seconds due to bonus seconds.
The 1974 Tour de France started on 27 June, and had two rest days, in Aix-les-Bains and Colomiers.
There were several classifications in the 1974 Tour de France, three of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist’s finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.
Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.
There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, but was not identified with a jersey in 1974.
Another classification was the combination classification. This classification was calculated as a combination of the other classifications, its leader wore the white jersey.
The fifth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. In 1974, this classification had no associated jersey.
For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps.
The combativity award was given to Eddy Merckx.
With his fifth Tour victory, Merckx equalled Jacques Anquetil. Moreover, Merckx had won the first five Tours that he entered. Merckx set a few new records after winning the 1974 Tour:
Merckx had already won the 1974 Giro d’Italia earlier that year, and after winning the 1974 Tour de France also won the world championship, and became the first cyclist to win the Triple Crown of Cycling.
Cyrille Guimard, who had won the first part of stage eight, tested positive for piperidine after stage thirteen. Three other cyclists tested positive:

Adam Cameron

Adam Cameron is a fictional character from the Australian Channel Seven soap opera Home and Away, played by Mat Stevenson. Stevenson had previously filmed a guest role on a rival soap opera when he was cast. Adam first appeared on-screen 28 June 1989 until Stevenson left the series in 1994. Adam was reintroduced into the series for a short time in 1999. Adam is characterised as a “intelligent and good-natured guy”, though Stevenson said he is a “layabout” who will not do anything that “interferes with having a good time”.

Stevenson had previously guested on rival soap opera Neighbours on Network Ten as petty criminal Skinner. In an interview with The Sun-Herald, he said that the chance to play Adam was a role-reversal and part in Neighbours helped him become more level-headed. Stevenson chose to move from his native Melbourne to Sydney for filming. Stevenson told the publication that he planned on staying with the serial for at least one year. The actor was nervous about joining the series because he was unsure of how he would fit in. Although the crew soon helped him settle in.
In 1990, Stevenson told TV Week that he was unhappy with the work he carried out on the serial. However; he remained until 1994 when Stevenson quit the serial.
Stevenson told The Sun-Herald that his character only visits Summer Bay to “grab a hamburger” but ends up staying in the area. Adam’s parents died beforehand and with the inheritance money he “plans to sail around the world” by building a yacht. When he arrives in the town, three established characters are on the receiving end of trouble from hooligans. Adam attempts to defuse the situation but finds himself in “deep water” and stranded in Summer Bay when they vandalise his yacht.
Stevenson later said that Adam is “a bit of a layabout” who is “capable of a kind word and good deed every now and then”. However, Adam would “rather not” do either if doing so “interferes with having a good time or a lazy time”. Stevenson said that he liked playing Adam, but noted he was nothing like his character because he is more responsible than Adam is. A columnist for Inside Soap said that Adam is a “one-time joker” and a “happy-go-lucky type of character”.
Stevenson told a writer from Look-in that Adam was hurt by the death of his parents and “doesn’t want to risk being hurt by anyone else”. He starts out as the serial’s “Mr Nice Guy and nearly everyone likes him” but he gradually changes. The actor said that Home and Away writing team were aware that he enjoyed playing “real horror” and decided to change Adam. He further explained that “they gradually bring it round to Adam doing a few very underhand things because he needs the money.” During his early years he forms a double act with Matt Wilson (Greg Benson). Stevenson told Look-in’ reporter that he and Benson shared a similar friendship and would also “joke around” on set. During filming, Stevenson handed Benson a cup of coffee with a cockroach in it and ruined the scene when Benson could not stop laughing.
In 1999, after many cast members had left the series, producers decided to bring back an old character. The character was later revealed to be Adam. Stevenson said that he “jumped” at the chance to return to Home and Away. He said it took him one week to settle back into the role and admitted that not much had changed on the series. Stevenson later told Jason Herbison of Inside Soap that he enjoyed playing Adam again so much that he considered asking the producer for a full-time return. Adam’s return storyline saw him moving into James Fraser’s (Michael Piccirilli) house alongside Shauna Bradley (Kylie Watson). Though Adam later decides to leave again and Harry Keller (Justin Melvey) takes his room.
Adam is first seen when he rescues Roo Stewart (Justine Clarke), Carly Morris (Sharyn Hodgson) and Bobby Simpson (Nicolle Dickson) from being assaulted by Maurice “Revhead” Gibson (Gavin Harrison) and several of his friends. Adam manages to distract Revhead and the gang by stealing Revhead’s car allowing the girls to escape. They thank Adam for his heroics. Adam plans to sail to the Great Barrier Reef and begin charter journeys on his yacht but Revhead and his friend Skid (Chris Harding) trash the yacht as revenge. After getting the yacht fixed Adam receives a booking from Millicent Staples (Julie Haseler) and is attracted to her. When they arrive on an island, Millicent’s true colours are revealed when she and her associates steal the yacht and maroon Adam. Adam is eventually found by Bobby and Carly and is upset when his yacht has been found by the police who reveal to him that Millicent is a smuggler. This especially hurts as the Yacht was the last portion of his inheritance from his late parents.
Adam manages to put the incident behind him and begins getting involved in many antics with local guys Matt, Martin Dibble (Craig Thomson) and Lance Smart (Peter Vroom). He also begins a relationship with Carly. When Rory Heywood (Gregor Jordan) is eaten by a shark, Adam vows to catch it and ultimately does. After Adam and Carly split up, He has a brief romance with Emma Jackson (Dannii Minogue) then becomes involved with Marilyn Chambers (Emily Symons). Adam and Marilyn live together as a couple at the Beach House for a while but they later split up and Adam moves out.
While taking a boat out for a spin with Bobby and Luke Cunningham(John Adam), Adam hits a large piece of driftwood which causes an accident and Bobby is thrown overboard. Bobby is hospitalised and she spends a week in a coma and then the decision is reached to turn her life support machine off. Bobby’s husband, Greg Marshall (Ross Newton), blames Adam for the accident and evicts him from the house. When Adam tries to attend the funeral Greg attacks him and throws him out of the church. Adam is left to feel like an outcast and is generally treated as a pariah by most of the town. Bobby’s adopted son, Sam (Ryan Clark) is angry to find Adam is responsible and throws a stick at him. Adam moves into Laura Brennan’s (Kris McQuade) old shack near the back lot of the Caravan Park along with Irene Roberts (Lynne McGranger) and her son Nathan (David Dixon). One day while Adam and Irene are out, Sam hides out in the house and accidentally starts a fire. Adam acts quickly to save Sam and is hailed as a hero. After being forgiven, Adam leaves Summer Bay.
Five years later, Adam returns to Summer Bay as the new manager of The Bonza Burger Kiosk in the Surf Club and begins throwing his weight around by threatening to sack Sally Fletcher (Kate Ritchie) and generally making her life difficult. Adam is then embroiled in a prank war with Sally’s boyfriend Vinnie Patterson (Ryan Kwanten). When Irene offers Adam a place to live he is shocked to find Hayley Smith (Bec Cartwright), who had argued with him earlier about his treatment of Sally, is living there. Adam then opts to move in with doctor James Fraser and Shauna Bradley, Adam is attracted to Shauna but she has no interest in him and things are not eased when Shauna is being stalked and accuses Adam of taking things from her room. After James evicts Adam, He decides to leave the bay once more after securing a transfer with another Bonza Burger franchise

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TV Week’s John Burtt said that “during his time in the Bay, larrikin Adam had more than a few run-in with Alf. He also romanced Carly, Emma and Marilyn.” Robin Oliver of The Sydney Morning Herald opined that Adam was “the character most in need of a good old-fashioned come-uppance.” A columnist for Inside Soap said that “Adam sails pretty close to the wind when it comes to staying on the right side of the law, and some of his little business ventures are dodgy to say the least.”