Risto Kallaste


Risto Kallaste (* 23. Februar 1971 in Tallinn) ist ein ehemaliger estnischer Fußballnationalspieler. Sein Sohn Ken Kallaste ist ebenso in der estnischen Nationalmannschaft aktiv.
Kallaste begann seine Karriere beim Verein Tallinna Lõvid, wo er im ersten Jahr noch an keinen Ligaspielen teilnahm Wellensteyn Damenjacken 2016. Nachdem Jahr beim Verein wechselte er zum in der Hauptstadt Tallinn liegenden Verein SK Tallinna Sport, wo er 35 Ligaspiele bestritt und drei Tore schoss. Wie beim ersten Verein stand er auch bei diesem Verein nur für eine Spielzeit unter Vertrag und kündigte nach dem Jahr diesen Bogner Jacken Sale. 1990 wechselte Kallaste zum Verein Gunnilse IS, bei welchem er im ersten Jahr noch keine Ligaspiele absolvierte. Ein Jahr später bestritt er 14 Ligaspiele, wovon er drei Tore schießen konnte.
Nach zwei Jahren beim Verein kündigte er den Vertrag und wechselte zum Verein FC Flora Tallinn, wo er für drei Jahre unter Vertrag stand. In seinem ersten Jahr nahm er an elf Ligaspielen teil, wobei er jedoch nie ein Tor erzielen konnte. In der Saison 1993/94 bestritt er 20 Ligaspiele, wovon er dreimal ins Tor traf. In seiner letzten Saison beim Verein konnte er keine Tore schießen. Während der drei Jahre absolvierte er 43 Ligaspiele, wobei er am Ende drei Tore aufweisen konnte.
Nach drei Jahren beim estnischen Verein wechselte er zum dänischen Verein Viborg FF, wo er für die Saison 1995/96 unter Vertrag stand 2016 fußballschuh. In der Saison nahm er an 26 Ligaspielen teil und konnte sieben Mal ins Tor schießen. 1999 ging er nach einer dreijährigen Pause wieder nach Estland, wo er für seine restliche Karriere blieb. Seine erste Station war FC Kuressaare, wo er von 1999 bis 2001 unter Vertrag stand. 1999 absolvierte er noch keine Ligaspiele, das einzige Jahr, in welchen er Ligaspiele absolvierte Bogner Outlet, war 2000. In diesem Jahr bestritt er 15 Ligaspiele und konnte fünf Mal ins Tor treffen. Wie im ersten Jahr nahm er auch im letzten an keinen Ligaspielen teil, ehe er eine vierjährige Pause einlegte.
Nach der Pause unterschrieb er einen neuen Vertrag beim Verein FC Nõmme United, wo er bis 2008 unter Vertrag stand. 2006 absolvierte er zehn Ligaspiele und konnte fünfmal ins Tor treffen. In seinem zweiten Jahr beim Verein bestritt er zwölf Ligaspiele und schoss einmal ins Tor. An einem Ligaspiel konnte er 2008 teilnehmen, wobei er in diesem gleich ein Tor erzielte. Nach drei Jahren konnte er 23 Ligaspiele aufweisen und neun Tore erzielen. Seine letzten zwei Jahre (2009, 2010) bestritt er beim Verein Eesti Koondis, wobei er fünf Ligaspiele absolvierte und ein Tor schoss.

Heinkel He 112

The Heinkel He 112 is a fighter aircraft designed by Walter and Siegfried Günter. It was one of four aircraft designed to compete for the Luftwaffe’s 1933 fighter contract, which was eventually won by the Messerschmitt Bf 109. Small numbers were used for a short time by the Luftwaffe, and small runs were completed for several other countries, but only around 100 were completed in total.

In the early 1930s, the German authorities started placing orders for new aircraft, initially training and utility aircraft. Heinkel, as one of the most experienced firms in the country, received contracts for a number of two-seat aircraft, including the He 45, He 46 and He 50. The company also worked on single-seat fighter designs, which culminated in the He 49 and later with the improved He 51.
When the He 51 was tested in combat in the Spanish Civil War, it was shown that speed was far more important than maneuverability. The Luftwaffe took this lesson to heart, and started a series of design projects for much more modern aircraft. One of these projects, Rüstungsflugzeug IV, called for a day fighter with a top speed of 400 km/h (250 mph) at 6,000 m (19,500 ft) which it could maintain for 20 minutes out of a total endurance of 90 minutes. It also needed to be armed with at least three machine guns with 1,000 rpg, or one 20 mm cannon with 200 rounds. The specification required that the wing loading should be below 100 kg/m² – a way of defining the aircraft’s ability to turn and climb. The priorities for the aircraft were level speed, climb speed, and then maneuverability in that order.
In October 1933, Hermann Göring sent out a letter requesting aircraft companies consider the design of a “high speed courier aircraft” – a thinly veiled request for a new fighter. In May 1934, this was made official and the Technisches Amt sent out a request for a single-seat interceptor for the Rüstungsflugzeug IV role, this time under the guise of a “sports aircraft”. The specification was first sent to the most experienced fighter designers, Heinkel, Arado, and Focke-Wulf. It was later sent to newcomer Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (Bavarian Aircraft Works or BFW) on the strength of their Bf 108 Taifun advanced sportsplane design. Each company was asked to build three prototypes for run-off testing. By spring 1935 Ted Baker Dresses outlet, both the Arado and Focke-Wulf aircraft were ready, the BFW arriving in March, and the He 112 in April.
Heinkel’s design was created primarily by twin brothers Walter and Siegfried Günter, whose designs would dominate most of Heinkel’s work. They started work on Projekt 1015 in late 1933 under the guise of the original courier aircraft, based around the BMW XV radial engine. Work was already under way when the official request went out on 2 May, and on 5 May the design was renamed the He 112.
The primary source of inspiration for the He 112 was their earlier He 70 Blitz (“Lightning”) design. The Blitz was a single-engine, four-passenger aircraft originally designed for use by Lufthansa, and it in turn was inspired by the famous Lockheed Model 9 Orion mail plane. Like many civilian designs of the time, the aircraft was pressed into military service and was used as a two-seat bomber (although mostly for reconnaissance) and served in this role in Spain. The Blitz introduced a number of new construction techniques to the Heinkel company; it was their first low-wing monoplane, their first with retractable landing gear, their first all-metal monocoque design, and its elliptical, reverse-gull wing would be seen on a number of later projects. The Blitz could almost meet the new fighter requirements itself, so it is not surprising that the Günters would choose to work with the existing design as much as possible.
He 112 was basically a scaled down version of Heinkel He 70 and shared its all metal construction, inverted gull wings, and retractable leading gear. Like the He 70, the He 112 was constructed entirely of metal, using a two-spar wing and a monocoque fuselage with flush-head rivets. The landing gear retracted outward from the low point of the wing’s gull-bend, which resulted in a fairly wide 9 m (30 ft) track, giving the aircraft excellent ground handling. Its only features from an older era were its open cockpit and fuselage spine behind the headrest, which were included to provide excellent vision and make the biplane-trained pilots feel more comfortable.
The first prototype, He 112 V1, was completed on 1 September 1935, but as the planned Junkers Jumo 210 engine was unavailable, a 518 kW (695 hp) Rolls-Royce Kestrel Mk IIS was fitted. Initial test flights at the factory revealed that drag was much higher than expected, and that the aircraft was not going to be as fast as originally predicted. The V1 was sent off to be tested by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) in December at Travemünde.
The second prototype, V2, was completed on 16 November. It had the 477 kW (640 hp) Jumo 210C engine and a three-blade propeller, but was otherwise identical to the V1. Meanwhile, the data from the V1 factory flights was studied to discover where the unexpected drag was coming from. The Günter brothers identified the large, thick wing as the main culprit, and designed an entirely new smaller and thinner wing with an elliptical planform. As a stop-gap measure, V2 had its wings clipped by 1.010 m (3 ft 7 in) to allow it to compete with the 109. This made the He 112 creep over the wing loading requirements in the specifications, but with the 109 way over the limit, this was not seen as a problem, and the V2 was sent off for testing.
The V3 took to the air in January. Minor changes included a larger radiator, fuselage spine and vertical stabilizer, but it was otherwise largely the same as the clipped wing V2. Other changes included a single cover over the exhaust ports instead of the more common “stack”, and it also included modifications to allow the armament to be installed in the cowling. It was expected to join the V2 in testing, but instead was assigned back to Heinkel in early 1937 for tests with rocket propulsion. During a test, the rocket exploded and the aircraft was destroyed, but in an amazing effort the V3 was rebuilt with several changes, including an enclosed cockpit.
The He 112 V1 started in the head-to-head contest when it arrived at Travemünde on 8 February 1936. The other three competitors had all arrived by the beginning of March. Right away, the Focke-Wulf Fw 159 and Arado Ar 80 proved to be lacking in performance, and plagued with problems, and were eliminated from serious consideration.
At this point, the He 112 was the favorite over the “unknown” Bf 109, but opinions changed when the Bf 109 V2 arrived on 21 March. All the competitor aircraft had initially been equipped with the Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine, but the Bf 109 V2 had the Jumo. From that point on, it started to outperform the He 112 in almost every way, and even the arrival of the Jumo-engined He 112 V2 on 15 April did little to address this imbalance.
As would be expected, the He 112 had better turn performance due to its larger wing, but the Bf 109 was faster at all altitudes and had considerably better agility and aerobatic abilities. During spin tests on 2 March, the Bf 109 V2 showed no problems while the He 112 V2 crashed. Repairs were made to the aircraft and it was returned in April, but it crashed again and was written off. The V1 was then returned to Heinkel on 17 April and fitted with the V2’s clipped wings.[citation needed]
Meanwhile, news came in that Supermarine had received a contract for full-scale production of the Spitfire. The Spitfire was far more advanced than any existing German aircraft and this caused a wave of concern in the high command of the Luftwaffe. Time now took on as much importance as any quality of the winning aircraft itself, and the RLM was ready to put any reasonable design into production. That design was the Bf 109, which in addition to demonstrating better performance, was considerably easier to build due to fewer compound curves and simpler construction throughout. On 12 March RLM produced a document called Bf 109 Priority Procurement which indicated which aircraft was now preferred. There were some within the RLM who still favored the Heinkel design, and as a result the RLM then sent out contracts for 10 “zero series” aircraft from both companies.
Testing continued until October, at which point some of the additional zero series aircraft had arrived. At the end of September, there were four He 112s being tested, yet none was a match for the Bf 109. From October on, the Bf 109 appears to have been selected as the winner of the contest. Although no clear date is given, in Stormy Life Ernst Udet himself delivered the news to Heinkel that the Bf 109 had entered series production in 1936. He is quoted as saying, “Pawn your crate off on the Turks or the Japanese or the Rumanians. They’ll lap it up.” With a number of air forces looking to upgrade from biplanes and various designs from the early 1930s, the possibility for foreign sales was promising.
Heinkel had expected orders for additional aircraft beyond the initial three prototypes, and was able to respond quickly to the new contract for the 10 zero series aircraft. The new aircraft would be given the series designation He 112 A-0.
The first of these new versions, V4, was completed in June 1936. It featured the new, elliptical wing, a more powerful 210Da engine with a two-speed supercharger that brought the power to 514 kW (690 hp) for takeoff and a smaller tailplane, while it also sported two fuselage-mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns. V3 was modified to a similar standard.
A prototype, known as Heinkel He 112 V5, was designed and built by engineer Werner von Braun. This variant of the fighter He 112 was powered by an additional rocket engine. First flown in early 1937, the He 112 V5 demonstrated the feasibility of rocket power for aircraft.
In July, both V5 and V6 were completed. V5 was identical to V4, with the Jumo 210Da engine. V6, on the other hand, was completed as the pattern aircraft for the A series production run, and thus included the 210C engine instead of the more powerful, but less available Da. The only other change was a modification to the radiator, but this would not appear on later A-0 series models. V6 suffered a forced landing on 1 August and was repaired and joined V4 for testing in October.
The last of the prototype A-0 series was V8, which was completed in October. It switched engines entirely and mounted the Daimler-Benz DB 600Aa, along with a three-bladed, fully adjustable, all-metal propeller. The engine was a huge change for the aircraft, producing 716 kW (960 hp) for takeoff and had 33.9 L (2,069 in³) displacement at 686 kg (1,510 lb), compared that to the Jumo 210Da’s 514 kW (690 hp) from 19.7 L (1,202 in³) at about the same weight. V8 was seen primarily as a testbed for the new engine, and more importantly, its cooling systems. The DB used a dry liner in the engine that resulted in poor heat flow, so more of the heat was removed by oil as opposed to water, requiring changes to the cooling systems.
In March 1937, the aircraft was assigned to rocket propulsion tests at Peenemünde. It completed these tests later that summer (without exploding) and was returned to the factory, where it was converted back into a normal model. At the end of the year, it was sent to Spain, where it was seriously damaged on 18 July 1938. Once again, it was put back together and was flying four months later. Its fate after this time is not recorded.
At this point, the prototype stage was ostensibly over, and Heinkel continued building the A-0 as production line models. The naming changed, adding a production number to the end of the name, so the next six examples were known as He 112 A-01 through A-06. All of these included the 210C engine and were essentially identical to V6, with the exception of the radiator.
These aircraft were used in just as varied a manner as the earlier V series had been. A-01 flew in October 1936 and was used as the prototype for a future 112 C-0 carrier-based aircraft. It was later destroyed during rocket tests. A-02 flew in November, and then joined the earlier V models at Rechlin-Lärz Airfield for further testing in the contest. A-03 and A-04 were both completed in December, A-03 was a show aircraft and was flown by Heinkel pilots at various air shows and exhibitions, A-04 was kept at Heinkel for various tests.
The last two models of the A-0 series, A-05 and A-06

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, were completed in March 1937. They were both shipped to Japan as the initial machines of the 30 for the Imperial Japanese Navy.
In October 1936, the RLM changed the orders for the zero series 112s, instructing Heinkel to complete any A-0s already under construction and then switch the remaining aircraft to an updated design. This gave Heinkel a chance to improve the He 112, which they did by completely redesigning it into an almost entirely new aircraft called the He 112B. It is at this point that it became a modern design that could compete head-to-head with the Bf 109.
The He 112B had a completely redesigned and cut-down rear fuselage, a new vertical stabilizer and rudder, and a completely enclosed cockpit with a bubble-style canopy. The canopy was somewhat more complex than later bubble designs; instead of having two pieces with the majority sliding to the rear, the He 112B’s canopy was in three pieces and the middle slid back and over a fixed rear section. Even with the additional framing, the He 112 still had excellent visibility for its day. Armament was also standardized on the B model with two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns in the sides of the cowling with 500 rpg, and two 20 mm MG FF cannons in the wings with 60 rpg. For aiming, the cockpit included the then-modern Revi 3B reflector gunsight.
The first B series airframe to be completed was V7 in October 1936. V7 used the DB 600Aa engine like the A-series V8, and it also used the original V1 style larger wing. This wing was later replaced with a smaller one, but instead of the clipped version from the earlier V models, a completely new single-spar fully elliptical wing was produced. This design became standard for the entire B series. V7 was turned over to von Braun in April 1937 for yet more rocket tests, and managed to survive the experience. It was then returned in the summer and sent to Rechlin where it was used as a test aircraft.
The next type was V9 which flew in July 1937, powered by the 507 kW (680 hp) Jumo 210Ea engine. V9 can be considered to be the “real” B series prototype, as V7 had received the DB 600Aa originally for experimental reasons. The entire surface was now flush riveted and the aircraft had several other aerodynamic cleanups. The radiator was again changed, this time to a semi-retractable design for reduced drag in flight. The aircraft also underwent a weight reduction program which reduced the empty weight to 1,617 kg (3,565 lb).
As a result of all of these changes, the V9 had a maximum speed of 485 km/h (301 mph) at 4,000 m (13,120 ft), and 430 km/h (270 mph) at sea level. This was a full 20 km/h (10 mph) faster than the contemporary Bf 109B. Nevertheless, by this time, the Bf 109 was already ramping up production, and the RLM saw no need for another largely similar aircraft. It is also worth noting that users of the aircraft generally found it impossible to reach this speed, and rarely managed to exceed 418 km/h (260 mph).
The RLM had already contracted for another six He 112s, so production of the prototypes continued. V10 was supposed to receive the 670 kW (960 hp) Junkers Jumo 211A (Junker’s new DB 600 competitor), but the engine was not available in time and V10 instead received the new 876 kW (1,175 hp) DB 601Aa. The engine drove V10 to 570 km/h (350 mph) and increased climb rate significantly. V11 was also supposed to get the Jumo 211A, but instead received the DB 600Aa.
The last prototype, V12, was actually an airframe taken off the B-1 series production line (which had started by this point). The Jumo 210Ea was replaced with the new fuel-injected 210Ga, which improved performance of the engine to 522 kW (700 hp) for takeoff, and a sustained output of 503 kW (675 hp) at the reasonably high altitude of 4,700 m (15,420 ft). Better yet, the Ga also decreased fuel consumption, thus increasing the aircraft’s endurance. The new engine gave V12 such a boost that it became the pattern aircraft for the planned B-2 series production.
With all of these different versions and experimental engine fits, it might seem like every aircraft differed significantly. But with the exception of the engine fits, the Bs are all basically identical. Due to the shortage of just about any German engine at the time and the possibility that advanced versions could be blocked for export, various models had to be designed with different installations. Thus the B models were different only in their engine, the Jumo 210C in the He 112 B-0, the Jumo 210Ea in the B-1, and the Jumo 210Ga for the B-2.
In order to show off the He 112, V9 spent much of the later half of 1937 being flown by pilots from all over the world. It was also sent around Europe for tours and air shows. The effort was a success and orders quickly started coming in. However, a variety of problems meant few of these were ever delivered.
The first order was from the Imperial Japanese Navy, who had a requirement for a fast climbing interceptor to deal with Tupolev SB bombers over China. After seeing V9 in flight, they quickly placed an order for 24 112Bs, with an option for 48 more. The first four were shipped in December 1937, another eight in the spring, and promises for the rest to arrive in May. Before delivery, the Luftwaffe unexpectedly took over 12 of the aircraft to bolster its forces during the Sudetenland Crisis. The aircraft were then returned to Heinkel in November, but the Japanese, who were unhappy with the high maintenace workload and lower manoeuvrability compared with fighters like the Mitsubishi A5M, refused to accept them this late and Heinkel was left holding the aircraft.
In November 1937, an Austrian delegation came to see the aircraft, led by Generaloberst Alexander Löhr, Command-in-Chief of the Luftstreitkräfte (Austrian Air Force). Test pilot Hans Schalk flew both the Bf 109 and the He 112V9 back to back. Although he felt that both models performed the same, the Heinkel had more balanced steering pressures and better equipment possibilities. They placed an order on 20 December for 42 He 112Bs. Pending the license for the MG FF cannon, these aircraft would remove the cannon and add six THM 10/I bomb shackles which carried small 10 kg (22 lb) anti-personnel bombs. The order was later reduced to 36 examples due to a lack of funds (the He 112B cost 163,278 Reichsmarks), but the aircraft were never delivered due to the annexation of Austria in the March 1938 Anschluss.
Spain was so impressed with the He 112’s performance during evaluation in the civil war that the Spanish Air Force purchased the 12 aircraft in early 1938, and later increased the order by another six (some sources say five). Of the first 12, two were shipped in November, another six in January, and the rest in April.
In April, it looked like Yugoslavia would be the next user of the He 112. It placed an order for 30 aircraft, but later cancelled the order and decided to produce other designs under license.
Finland appeared to be another potential customer. From January–March 1938, the famous Finnish pilot Gustaf Erik Magnusson travelled to Germany to gain experience in new tactics. He had been on similar tours in France in the past and was interested to see how the Germans were training their pilots. On a visit to the Heinkel plant in Marienehe, he flew the He 112 and reported it to be the best aircraft he had flown. In May, Heinkel sent the first of the He 112 B-1s to Finland to join an air show. It remained for the next week and was flown by a number of pilots, including Magnusson, who had since returned to Finland. Although all of the pilots liked the aircraft, the cost was so high that the Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force) decided to stick with the much less expensive Fokker D.XXI.
A similar setback would accompany sales efforts targeting the Dutch Air Force, who was looking to purchase 36 fighters to form two new squadrons. A He 112 B-1 arrived for testing on 12 July and quickly proved to be the best aircraft in the competition. Nevertheless, they decided to purchase the locally built (and rather outdated) Koolhoven F.K.58 instead. The aircraft was not ready for production, so in an odd twist, they then purchased a number of Hawker Hurricanes because they could be delivered immediately. In the end, the F.K.58s were never delivered.
Fortunes would be seem to be reversed with Hungary. In June 1938, three pilots of the Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierö (Royal Hungarian Home Defense Air Force or MKHL) were sent to Heinkel to study V9. They were impressed with what they saw, and on 7 September, an order was placed for 36 aircraft, as well as an offer to license the design for local construction. Through a variety of political mishaps, only three aircraft were ever delivered and licensed production never happened.
The final and perhaps most successful customer for the He 112B was Romania. The Forţã Aeronauticã Regalã Românã (Royal Romanian Air Force) ordered 24 aircraft in April 1939, and increased the order to 30 on 18 August. Deliveries started in June, with the last being delivered on 30 September.
By this point, war had broken out, and with better models on the market – including Heinkel’s own He 100 – no one else was interested in purchasing the design. The production line was closed after a total of only 98 aircraft, 85 of those being the B series models.
In 1931, the Army Weapons Office testing ground at Kummersdorf had taken over research into liquid-fuel rockets. In 1932, Wernher von Braun designed a rocket of this kind which used high percentage spirit and liquid oxygen. With this he made the first experiments. In 1934 he fired his second rocket type, the A2, from the North Sea island of Borkum. Having completed the programme of experiments, von Braun was interested in evaluating an aircraft with a rocket motor propulsion system. For this he needed an aircraft and support team. Initially the highest levels at the Army High Command and the Reich Air Ministry (RLM) were opposed to such “fantasies”, as they called them. Many people, technicians and academic experts in positions of influence in aeronautics, maintained that an aircraft driven by a tail thrust would experience a change in the centre of gravity and flip over. Very few believed the contrary, but one of them was Ernst Heinkel. Following his offer of unhesitating support, Heinkel placed at the disposal of von Braun an He 112 fuselage shell less wings for the standing tests.
In 1936 von Braun had advanced far enough to begin trials. A great tongue of flame from the rocket motor roared through the fuselage tail to set up the back thrust. Late in 1936 Erich Warsitz was seconded by the RLM to Wernher von Braun and Ernst Heinkel, because he had been recognized as one of the most experienced test pilots of the time, and because he also was technically proficient.
Erich Warsitz: “For the later flight trials Heinkel gave us an airworthy He 112 which we fitted with an additional rocket motor, and after months of untiring effort we started to look for somewhere to carry out the flight experiments under conditions of secrecy and reasonable safety.”
The RLM agreed to lend Neuhardenberg, a large field about 70 kilometres east of Berlin, listed as a reserve airfield in the event of war. Since Neuhardenberg had no buildings or facilities, a number of marquees were erected to house the aircraft. In the spring of 1937 the Kummersdorf Club transferred to Neuhardenberg and continued the standing trials with the He 112 fuselage.
In June 1937 Erich Warsitz undertook the initial flight testing of the He 112 fitted with von Braun’s rocket engine. Despite the wheels-up landing and having the fuselage on fire, it proved to official circles that an aircraft could be flown satisfactorily with a back-thrust system through the rear.
Also the firm of Hellmuth Walter at Kiel had been commissioned by the RLM to build a rocket engine for the He 112, so there were two different new rocket motor designs at Neuhardenberg; whereas the von Braun’s engines were powered by alcohol and liquid oxygen, Walter engines had hydrogen peroxide and calcium permanganate as a catalyst. Von Braun’s engine used direct combustion and created fire, the Walter produced hot vapours from a chemical reaction, but both created thrust and provided high speed. The subsequent flights with the He 112 used the Walter-rocket instead of von Braun’s; it was more reliable, simpler to operate and the dangers to test pilot Erich Warsitz and machine were less.
After conclusion of the He 112 tests using both rocket motors, the marquees at Neuhardenberg were dismantled at the end of 1937. This coincided with the construction of Peenemünde.
When it was clear the 112 was losing the contest to the Bf 109, Heinkel offered to re-equip V6 with 20 mm cannon armament as an experimental aircraft. She was then broken down and shipped to Spain on 9 December and assigned to Versuchsjagdgruppe 88, a group within the Legion Condor devoted to testing new aircraft and joined three V-series Bf 109s which were also in testing.
Oberleutnant Wilhelm Balthasar used it to attack an armoured train and an armoured car. Other pilots flew it, but the engine seized during landing in July and she was written off.
For the annexation of the Sudetenland, every flightworthy fighter was pressed into service. The batch of He 112Bs for the Japanese Navy was taken over, but not used before the end of the crisis and shipped to Japan to fulfill orders.
The Japanese rejected the He 112 as a fighter but took 30 for training duties, and V11 with its DB 600Aa was used for testing.
The Spanish government purchased 12 He 112Bs. This increased to 19. The He 112s were to operate as top cover for Fiat fighters in the opening stages of the Civil War, the Fiat having considerably worse altitude performance. In the event, only a single kill was made with the He 112 as a fighter and it was moved onto ground-attack work.
During World War II, when Allied forces landed in North Africa, Spanish forces in Morocco intercepted stray aircraft of both Allied and German forces. None of these incidents resulted in losses. In 1943, one He 112 of Grupo nº27 attacked the tail-end aircraft of 11 Lockheed P-38s forcing it down in Algeria after they re-entered French territory having crossed into Spanish Morocco. By 1944, the aircraft were largely grounded due to a lack of fuel and maintenance.
Like the Germans, Hungary had stiff regulations imposed on its armed forces with the signing of the Treaty of Trianon. In August 1938, the armed forces were re-formed, and with Austria (historically her partner for centuries) being incorporated into Germany, Hungary found herself in the German sphere.
One of the highest priorities for the forces was to re-equip the MKHL as soon as possible. Of the various aircraft being considered, the He 112B eventually won out over the competition, and on 7 September, an order was placed for 36 aircraft. The Heinkel production line was just starting, and with Japan and Spain in the queue, it would be some time before the aircraft could be delivered. Repeated pleas to be moved to the top of the queue failed.
Germany had to refuse the first order at the beginning of 1939 because of its claimed neutrality in the Hungarian/Romanian dispute over Transylvania. In addition, the RLM refused to license the 20 mm MG FF cannon to the Hungarians, likely as a form of political pressure. This later insult did not cause a problem, because they planned to replace it with the locally designed 20 mm Danuvia cannon anyway.
V9 was sent to Hungary as a demonstrator after a tour of Romania, and arrived on 5 February 1939. It was test flown by a number of pilots over the next week, and on 14 February, they replaced the propeller with a new three-bladed Junkers design (licensed from Hamilton). While being tested against a CR.32 that day, V9 crashed. On 10 March, a new He 112 B-1/U2 arrived to replace the V9 and was flown by a number of pilots at different fighter units. It was during this time that the Hungarian pilots started to complain about the underpowered engine, as they found that they could only reach a top speed of 430 km/h (270 mph) with the Jumo 210Ea.
With the Japanese and Spanish orders filled, things were looking up for Hungary. However, at that point, Romania placed its order, and was placed at the front of the queue. It appeared that the Hungarian production machines might never arrive, so the MKHL started pressing for a license to build the aircraft locally. In May, the Hungarian Manfred-Weiss company in Budapest received the license for the aircraft, and on 1 June, an order was placed for 12 aircraft. Heinkel agreed to deliver a Jumo 210Ga-powered aircraft to serve as a pattern aircraft.
As it turns out, the He 112 B-2 was never delivered; two more of the B-1/U2s with the Jumo 210Ea were sent instead. On arrival in Hungary, the 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns were removed and replaced with the local 8 mm (.315 in) 39.M machine guns, and bomb racks were added. The resulting fit was similar to those originally ordered by Austria. Throughout this time, the complaints about the engines were being addressed by continued attempts to license one of the newer 30 L (1,831 in³)-class engines, the Junkers Jumo 211A or the DB 600Aa.
Late in March, the He 100 V8 took the world absolute speed record, but in stories about the record attempt, the aircraft was referred to as the He 112U. Upon hearing of the record, the Hungarians decided to switch production to this “new version” of the 112, which was based on the newer engines. Then in August, the Commander-in-Chief of the MKHL recommended that the 112 be purchased as the standard fighter for Hungary (although likely referring to the earlier versions, not the “112U”).
At this point, the engine issue came to a head. It was clear that no production line aircraft would ever reach Hungary, and now that the war was underway, the RLM was refusing to allow their export anyway. Shipments of the Jumo 211 or DB 601 were not even able to fulfill German needs, so export of the engine for locally built airframes was likewise out of the question.
By September, the ongoing negotiations with the RLM for the license to build the engines locally stalled, and as a result, the MKHL ordered Manfred-Weiss to stop tooling up for the production line aircraft. The license was eventually canceled in December. The MKHL turned to the Italians and purchased the Fiat CR.32 and Reggiane Re.2000. The later would be the backbone of the MKHL for much of the war.
Nevertheless, the three He 112 B-1/U2 aircraft continued to serve on. In the summer of 1940, tensions with Romania over Transylvania started to heat up again and the entire MKHL was placed on alert on 27 June. On 21 August, the He 112s were moved forward to the Debrecen airfield to protect a vital railway link. The next week, a peaceful resolution was found, and the settlement was signed in Vienna on 30 August. The He 112s returned home the following week.
By 1941, the aircraft were ostensibly assigned to defend the Manfred-Weiss plant, but were actually used for training. When Allied bomber raids started in the spring of 1944, the aircraft were no longer airworthy, and it appears all were destroyed in a massive raid on the Budapest-Ferihegy airport on 9 August 1944.
After the licensed production of the He 112B fell through in 1939, the plan was to switch the production line to build a Manfred-Weiss-designed aircraft called the W.M.23 Ezüst Nyíl (“Silver Arrow”). The aircraft was basically a He 112B adapted to local construction; the wings were wooden versions of the He 112’s planform, the fuselage was made of plywood over a steel frame, and the engine was a licensed version of the 746 kW (1,000 hp)-class Gnome-Rhone Mistral-Major radial.
It would seem that this “simplified” aircraft would be inferior to the He 112, but in fact the higher-powered engine made all the difference and the W.M.23 proved to be considerably faster than the He 112. Nevertheless, work proceeded slowly and only one prototype was built. The project was eventually canceled outright when the prototype crashed in early 1942. It is still a mystery why so little work had been done in those two years on what appeared to be an excellent design.
The Imperial Japanese Navy purchased 12 Heinkel He 112B-0 fighters, which it designated both as the Heinkel A7He1 and as the Navy Type He Air Defense Fighter. The Japanese flew the A7He1 briefly during the Second Sino-Japanese War, but phased it out of service before the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. Assuming it still to be in Japanese use, however, the Allies assigned the reporting name “Jerry” to the A7He1 during World War II.
The Treaty of Versailles ratified the wish of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe, by recognizing the national states of Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia as well as the Union of the Romanian people, by integration of former provinces of the defunct Tsarist and Austro-Hungarian empires, with a Romanian ethnic majority, into the Romanian Kingdom (see Union of Transylvania with Romania, Union of Bessarabia with Romania). Also Romania had been granted southern Dobrogea after the Second Balkan War. These territorial changes did not go well with Bulgaria

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, and the successor states of the former empires (Hungary, USSR), which adopted a hostile stance. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Romania entered a number of alliances with the nearby nations which were in a similar situation, notably Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. They were interested in blocking any changes to the Treaty of Versailles which could lead to reintegration by force in a multinational empire and, eventually, the loss of national identity.
Germany looked on Romania as an important supplier of war material, notably oil and grain. Looking to secure Romania as an ally, throughout the middle of the 1930s, Germany applied increasing pressure in a variety of forms, best summed up as the “carrot and stick” approach. The carrot came in the form of generous trade agreements for a variety of products and by the late 1930s, Germany formed about ½ of all of Romania’s trade. The stick came in the form of Germany siding with Romania’s enemies in various disputes.
On 26 June 1940, the Soviet Union gave Romania a 24-hour ultimatum to return Bessarabia and cede northern Bukovina, even though the latter had never even been a part of Russia. Germany’s ambassador to Romania advised the king to submit, and he did. In August, Bulgaria reclaimed southern Dobruja, with German and Soviet backing. Later that month, German and Italian foreign ministers met with Romanian diplomats in Vienna and presented them with an ultimatum to accept the ceding of northern Transylvania to Hungary.
Romania was placed in an increasingly bad position as her local allies were gobbled up by Germany, and her larger allies’ (Britain and France) assurances of help proved empty, as demonstrated by their lack of action during the invasion of Poland. Soon the king was forced from the throne and a pro-German government was formed.
With Romania now firmly in the German sphere of influence, her efforts to re-arm for the coming war were suddenly strongly backed. The primary concern was the air force, the FARR. Their fighter force at the time consisted of just over 100 Polish PZL P.11 aircraft, primarily the P.11b or the locally modified f model, and P.24E. Although these aircraft had been the most advanced fighters in the world in the early 1930s, by the late 1930s, they were hopelessly outclassed by practically everything.
In April 1939, the FARR was offered the Bf 109 as soon as production was meeting German demands. In the meantime, they could take over 24 He 112Bs that were already built. The FARR jumped at the chance and then increased the order to 30 aircraft.
Late in April, a group of Romanian pilots arrived at Heinkel for conversion training, which went slowly because of the advanced nature of the He 112 in comparison to the PZL. When the training was complete, the pilots returned home in the cockpits of their new aircraft. The aircraft, all of them B-1s or B-2s, were “delivered” in this manner starting in July and ending in October. Two of the aircraft were lost, one in a fatal accident during training in Germany on 7 September, and another suffered minor damage on landing while being delivered and was later repaired at SET in Romania.
When the first aircraft started arriving, they were tested competitively against the locally designed IAR.80 prototype. This interesting and little known aircraft proved to be superior to the He 112B in almost every way. At the same time, the test flights revealed a number of disadvantages of the He 112, notably the underpowered engine and poor speed. The result of the fly-off was that the IAR.80 was ordered into immediate production, and orders for any additional He 112s were cancelled.
By 15 September, enough of the aircraft had arrived to re-equip Escadrila 10 and 11. The two squadrons were formed into the Grupul 5 vânãtoare (5th Fighter Group), responsible for the defense of Bucharest. In October, they were renamed as the 51st and 52nd squadrons, still forming the 5th. The pilots had not been a part of the group that had been trained at Heinkel, so they started working their way toward the He 112 using Nardi F.N.305 monoplane trainers. Training lasted until the spring of 1940, when a single additional He 112 B-2 was delivered as a replacement for the one that crashed in Germany the previous September.
During the troubles with Hungary, the 51st was deployed to Transylvania. Hungarian Ju 86s and He 70s started making reconnaissance flights over Romanian territory. Repeated attempts to intercept them failed because of the He 112’s low speed. On 27 August, Locotenent Nicolae Polizu was over Hungarian territory when he encountered a Caproni Ca.135bis bomber flying on a training mission. Several of his 20 mm rounds hit the bomber, which was forced down safely at the Hungarian Debrecen airbase – home of the Hungarian He 112s. Polizu became the first Romanian to shoot down an aircraft in aerial combat.
When Germany prepared to invade the USSR in 1941, Romania joined it in an effort to regain the territories lost the year before. The FARR was made part of Luftflotte 4, and in preparation for the invasion, Grupul 5 vânãtoare was sent to Moldavia. At the time, 24 of the He 112s were flyable. Three were left at their home base at Pipera to complete repairs, two others had been lost to accidents, and the fate of the others is unknown. On 15 June, the aircraft were moved again

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, to Foscani-North in northern Moldavia.
With the opening of the war on 22 June, the He 112s were in the air at 1050 supporting an attack by Potez 63s of Grupul 2 bombardment on the Soviet airfields at Bolgrad and Bulgãrica. Although some flak was encountered on the way to and over Bolgrad, the attack was successful and a number of Soviet aircraft were bombed on the ground. By the time they reached Bulgãrica, fighters were in the air waiting for them, and as a result the 12 He 112s were met by about 30 I-16s. The results of this combat were mixed; Sublocotenent Teodor Moscu shot down one of a pair of I-16s still taking off. When he was pulling out, he hit another in a head-on pass and it crashed into the Danube. He was set upon by several I-16s and received several hits, his fuel tanks were punctured but did not seal. Losing fuel rapidly, he formed up with his wingman and managed to put down at the Romanian airfield at Bârlad. His aircraft was later repaired and returned to duty. Of the bombers, three of the 13 dispatched were shot down.
Over the next few days, the He 112s would be used primarily as ground-attack aircraft, where their heavy armament was considered to be more important than their ability to fight in the air. Typical missions would start before dawn and would have the Heinkels strafe Soviet airbases. Later in the day, they would be sent on search and destroy missions, looking primarily for artillery and trains.
Losses were heavy, most not due to combat, but simply because the aircraft were flying an average of three missions a day and were not receiving adequate maintenance. This problem affected all of the FARR, which did not have the field maintenance logistics worked out at the time. On 29 July, a report on the readiness of the air forces listed only 14 He 112s in flyable condition, and another eight repairable. As a result, the aircraft of the 52nd were folded into the 51st to form a single full strength squadron on 13 August. The men of the 52nd were merged with the 42nd who flew IAR.80s, and were soon sent home to receive IAR.80s of their own. A report from August on the He 112 rated it very poorly, once again noting its lack of power and poor speed.
For a time, the 51st continued in a front-line role, although it saw little combat. When Odessa fell on 16 October, the Romanian war effort ostensibly ended, and the aircraft were considered to be no longer needed at the front. 15 were kept at Odessa and the rest were released to Romania for training duty (although they seem to have seen no use). On 1 November, the 51st moved to Tatarka and then returned to Odessa on the 25th, performing coastal patrol duties all the while. On 1 July 1942, the 51st returned to Pipera and stood down after a year in action.
On 19 July one of the He 112s took to the air to intercept Soviet bombers in what was the first night mission by a Romanian aircraft. As the Soviets were clearly gearing up for a night offensive on Bucharest, the 51st was then re-equipped with Bf 110 night fighters and became the only Romanian night fighter squadron.
By 1943, the IAR.80 was no longer competitive, and the FARR started an overdue move to a newer fighter. The fighter in this case was the barely competitive Bf 109G. The He 112s found themselves actively being used in the training role at last. The inline engine and general layout of the German designs was considered similar enough to make it useful in this role, and as a result the He 112s came under the control of the Corpul 3 Aerian (3rd Air Corps). Several more of the He 112s were destroyed in accidents during this time. It soldiered on in this role into late 1944, even after Romania had changed sides and joined the Allies.
Data from[citation needed]
General characteristics
Performance
Armament
General characteristics
Performance
Armament
Notes
Bibliography

Eberhard (Franken)

Eberhard (* um 885; † 2. Oktober 939 bei Andernach) aus der Familie der Konradiner war der jüngere Bruder König Konrads I 2016 Puma Fußballschuhe Steckdose.
913 war er Graf im Hessengau und im Perfgau, 913 und 928 Graf im Oberlahngau. 914 bis 918 war er Markgraf, danach bis 939 Herzog von Franken und von 926 bis 928 gleichzeitig Herzog von Lothringen. 936 war er Truchsess und 938 Pfalzgraf, 939 Laienabt des Klosters St. Maximin in Trier.
Eberhard unterstützte die Königsherrschaft seines Bruders (911–918) aktiv, insbesondere gegen die Herzöge Arnulf von Bayern und Heinrich von Sachsen.
Als Konrad I. Ende 918 wusste, dass er sterben würde, forderte er alle Herzöge auf, zu ihm nach Forchheim zu kommen. Sicher ist, dass Heinrich nicht kam. Widukind von Corvey berichtet, dass Konrad auf seinem Sterbebett am 23. Dezember 918 seinen Bruder Eberhard beauftragt habe Billig Bogner Skijacke, Heinrich die Königsinsignien persönlich zu übergeben. Im Mai 919 übergab Eberhard auf dem Reichstag in Fritzlar die Insignien an Heinrich, und Franken sowie Sachsen wählten Heinrich zum König MCM Rucksack 2016, womit zum ersten Mal ein Sachse Herrscher des ostfränkischen Reiches wurde. Widukinds Designationsbericht wird allerdings heute von vielen Geschichtsforschern als eine von den Liudolfingern aufgebrachte Legende betrachtet.
Das Verhältnis Eberhards zu dem neuen König Heinrich I. war ungetrübt. Von 926 bis 928 übertrug Heinrich I. Eberhard auch das Herzogtum Lothringen, was als Vertrauensbeweis gelten kann: Der neue Herzog konnte durch seine Regierung das Land schnell beruhigen.
Nach Heinrichs Tod geriet Eberhard sehr bald in Konflikt mit Heinrichs Sohn und Nachfolger Otto I. Im Jahre 937 belagerte Eberhard die Burg Helmern bei Peckelsheim, die im fränkischen Herzogtum an der Grenze zu Sachsen lag. Der Burgherr Bruning war Sachse und lehnte ein Lehnsverhältnis zu Eberhard und generell zu einem Franken oder Nicht-Sachsen ab. Otto I. forderte alle Beteiligten auf, nach Magdeburg zum Königsgericht zu kommen. Eberhard musste ein Bußgeld zahlen und seine Hauptleute wurden zum öffentlichen Tragen von toten Hunden verurteilt, was als eine besonders entehrende Strafe angesehen wurde.
Eberhard schloss sich daraufhin den Gegnern Ottos an. 938 rebellierte er gemeinsam mit Ottos älterem Halbbruder Thankmar und dem neuen Herzog von Bayern, Eberhard (Sohn Arnulfs von Bayern). Thankmar wurde jedoch schon 938 im Kampf getötet und Eberhard von Bayern wurde durch seinen Onkel Berthold ersetzt, der in Bayern von 938 bis 945 regierte. Nach kurzzeitiger Versöhnung mit Otto verbündete sich Eberhard mit Giselbert von Lothringen und Ottos jüngerem Bruder Heinrich schon bald darauf zum erneuten Aufstand. Am 2. Oktober 939 wurden Eberhard und Giselbert von den konradinischen Grafen Konrad Kurzbold und Udo I. von der Wetterau in der Schlacht von Andernach am Rhein geschlagen. Eberhard fiel in der Schlacht nike footaball Strumpf und Kappe Auslass; Udo soll ihn eigenhändig getötet haben. Giselbert ertrank im Rhein bei dem Versuch, zu fliehen.

Смородское

Смородское (укр. Смородське) — село, Люботинского городского совета дешевым Adidas футбола, Харьковской области Украины.
Код КОАТУУ — 6311290009. Население по переписи 2001 года составляет 91 человек (41 мужчин и 50 женщин) дешевым Adidas футбола.

Село Смородское находится на расстоянии 1 км от города Люботин и посёлка Березовское (Дергачёвский район) bogner москва. Село разделено на две части, разнесённых на километр. Рядом проходят автомобильные дороги М-03 и Т-2112.
Село основано в 1885 году bogner москва.
Со времён Великой Отечественной войны в селе находится братская могила советских воинов. Количество похороненных в ней неизвестно.

Балаклейский • Барвенковский • Близнюковский • Богодуховский • Боровский (Боровской) • Валковский • Великобурлукский • Волчанский • Двуречанский • Дергачёвский • Зачепиловский • Змиёвский (Змиевской) • Золочевский • Изюмский • Кегичевский • Коломакский • Красноградский • Краснокутский • Купянский • Лозовский (Лозовской) • Нововодолажский • Первомайский • Печенежский • Сахновщинский • Харьковский • Чугуевский • Шевченковский
Балаклея2 • Барвенково2 • Богодухов2 • Валки2 • Волчанск2 • Дергачи2 • Змиёв2 • Изюм1 • Красноград2 • Купянск1 • Лозовая1 • Люботин1 • Мерефа2 • Первомайский1 • Пивденное2 • Харьков1 • Чугуев1
Андреевка • Бабаи • Безлюдовка • Белый Колодезь • Березовка • Близнюки • Борки • Боровая • Буды • Васищево • Введенка • Великий Бурлук • Вильча • Высокий • Гуты • Двуречная • Зачепиловка • Зидьки • Золочев • Казачья Лопань • Кегичёвка • Ковшаровка • Ковяги • Коломак • Константиновка • Коротыч • Кочеток • Краснокутск • Краснопавловка • Кулиничи • Купянск-Узловой • Малая Даниловка • Малиновка • Манченки • Новая Водолага • Новопокровка • Ольшаны • Орелька • Панютино • Пересечное • Песочин • Печенеги • Покотиловка • Приколотное • Прудянка • Рогань • Савинцы • Сахновщина • Слатино • Слобожанское (Змиёвский район) • Слобожанское (Кегичёвский район) • Солоницевка • Старый Мерчик • Старый Салтов • Утковка • Хорошево • Червоный Донец • Чкаловское • Шаровка • Шевченково • Эсхар

Wavelength Division Multiplexing

In telecomunicazioni WDM è la sigla di Wavelength Division Multiplexing, un tipo di multiplazione utilizzato nei sistemi di comunicazione ottica. Di fatto trattasi di una multiplazione classica di tipo FDM dove in ottica si preferisce lavorare riferendosi alle lunghezze d’onda anziché alle usuali frequenze dell’onda elettromagnetica portante l’informazione.
Per modulare diversi canali su una stessa fibra ottica si usano diverse portanti di differenti lunghezze d’onda, una per ogni canale, e per la singola portante si usa la modulazione di intensità o ampiezza. In questo modo è possibile sfruttare la grande banda ottica disponibile della fibra. Ciascun canale è poi a sua volta multiplato in TDM.
In gergo le lunghezze d’onda vengono anche chiamate “colori” e la trasmissione WDM viene detta “colorata”, anche se in realtà le lunghezze d’onda usate non sono nel campo del visibile.
Uno dei maggiori problemi che si riscontrano nell’utilizzo dei sistemi WDM è la Cross Phase Modulation, un effetto non lineare dovuto all’effetto Kerr. L’effetto Kerr provoca infatti l’assorbimento contemporaneo di due fotoni da parte del materiale. Questo assorbimento porta ad un aumento dell’energia degli elettroni del materiale, che in seguito ritornano allo stato iniziale, emettendo un’altra coppia di fotoni. L’energia di questi due fotoni riemessi può essere diversa da quella dei due fotoni assorbiti (la somma sarà ovviamente uguale), e quindi sarà diversa anche la lunghezza d’onda. In questo modo i fotoni riemessi vanno ad inserirsi in un altro canale, ad un’altra lunghezza d’onda, creando rumore ottico sul canale stesso. Ad oggi questo è il problema maggiore che limita lo sviluppo della tecnologia WDM.
Un sistema WDM usa un multiplexer in trasmissione per inviare più segnali insieme, e un demultiplexer in ricezione per separarli. Usando il giusto tipo di fibra ottica è possibile avere un dispositivo che compie entrambe le azioni simultaneamente e può funzionare come un Add-Drop Multiplexer ottico. I dispositivi di filtraggio ottico usati nei modulatori-demodulatori sono di solito degli interferometri di Fabry-Perot a stato solido e singola frequenza, nella forma di vetro ottico ricoperto da film sottile.
L’idea di base dei sistemi WDM fu pubblicata per la prima volta nel 1970 e nel 1978 essi cominciarono a essere realizzati in laboratorio. I primi sistemi WDM combinavano solo due segnali. I sistemi moderni possono gestire fino a 160 segnali e possono quindi moltiplicare la banda di una fibra a 10 Gbit/s fino a un limite teorico di oltre 1.6 Tbit/s su una singola coppia di fibre.
I sistemi WDM sono apprezzati dalle società telefoniche perché consentono di aumentare la banda disponibile in una rete senza dover stendere altra fibra ottica. Usando il WDM e gli amplificatori ottici, è possibile aggiornare progressivamente la tecnologia degli apparati di rete senza essere costretti a rifare totalmente la rete backbone. La capacità di banda di un certo collegamento può essere aumentata semplicemente aggiornando i multiplatori e demultiplatori a ciascun capo del collegamento.
Questo è spesso realizzato compiendo una serie di conversioni ottico-elettrico-ottico alle estremità della rete di trasporto

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, permettendo così l’interoperabilità con gli esistenti apparati con interfacce ottiche.
La maggior parte di sistemi WDM operano con fibre monomodali, con un diametro del nucleo di 9 µm. Alcuni tipi di WDM possono essere usati anche con fibre multi-modali che hanno diametro del nucleo di 50 o 62

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I primi sistemi WDM erano costosi e complicati da far funzionare. Tuttavia la recente standardizzazione e una migliore compressione della dinamica dei sistemi WDM hanno abbassato molto i costi.
I ricevitori ottici, contrariamente alle sorgenti laser, tendono a essere dispositivi a larga banda. Per questa ragione è il demultiplexer che deve fornire la selettività di lunghezza d’onda in ricezione nei sistemi WDM.
I sistemi WDM si possono suddividere, in base alla separazione tra le diverse lunghezze d’onda usate, in WDM dense (DWDM “densi”) e coarse (CWDM “a grana grossa”). I sistemi DWDM convenzionali forniscono fino a 40 canali nella terza finestra di trasmissione (la banda C) delle fibre in silice, intorno alla lunghezza d’onda di 1550 nm, con una separazione tra i canali di 100 GHz. Diminuendo la spaziatura tra lunghezze d’onda è oggi possibile usare la stessa finestra di trasmissione arrivando a 80/96 canali a intervalli di 50 GHz; sistemi a 160 canali e intervalli di 25 GHz sono a volte chiamati ultra densi.
Ogni lunghezza d’onda è in grado di trasportare segnali con bit rate differente; la separazione dei canali consente il trasporto di servizi a 1Gbit/s fino a 100Gbit/s senza che si generi interferenza (crosstalk) – a tale proposito è necessario sottolineare l’importanza di una corretta progettazione della rete in f.o. che tenga conto degli effetti dovuti alla dispersione, del bilanciamento di potenza tra i vari canali, della presenza di tecniche di modulazioni particolari che possano interferire con canali adiacenti etc. Un moderno sistema a 80 lunghezze d’onda con spaziatura 50GHz in banda C è in grado di trasportare 8Tbit/s di traffico su una singola coppia di fibre per oltre 2500km senza che sia necessaria la rigenerazione del segnale (3R).
Nel coarse WDM (CWDM) la separazione tra le lunghezze d’onda usate è maggiore che nel convenzionale e nel DWDM, in modo da poter utilizzare componenti ottici meno sofisticati e quindi meno costosi. Per continuare a fornire 16 canali su una sola fibra, il CWDM usa interamente la banda di frequenze compresa tra la seconda e la terza finestra di trasmissione (1310/1550 nm rispettivamente) in cui, oltre alle due finestre (la finestra a minima dispersione e quella a minima attenuazione) è compresa anche l’area critica dove può aversi attenuazione del segnale per l’assorbimento dovuto alla presenza di impurità costituite da ossidrili OH; per questo si raccomanda di usare fibre ottiche senza OH nel caso si vogliano impiegare anche le frequenze di quest’area critica. Togliendo invece questa, rimangono i canali 31,49,51,53,55,57

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,59,61

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, che sono quelli più usati.
Un’altra differenza tra WDM, DWDM e CWDM è legata all’amplificazione del segnale ottico. L’EDFA, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (Amplificatore ottico all’Erbio) consente una buona amplificazione ad ampio spettro per le frequenze della banda C, mentre l’amplificazione in banda L è solitamente meno efficiente. Amplificare i segnali attraverso amplificatori Raman consente invece di estendere i passi di amplificazione oltre i 50dB di attenuazione di tratta, consentendo ad esempio di diminuire i passi di amplificazione (si possono trovare sistemi commerciali che, grazie a questa tecnica, consentono di amplificare segnali oltre i 100km per tratta di fibra ottica). Per il CWDM non è invece disponibile un’amplificazione ottica a larga banda, limitando così la lunghezza dei tratti di fibra senza rigenerazione ad alcune decine di chilometri.

Buenaventura River

La Buenaventura River, aussi appelée San Buenaventura River ou Río Buenaventura, est un fleuve fictif qui était censé couler dans ce qui est aujourd’hui l’ouest des États-Unis, naissant dans les Montagnes Rocheuses et se jetant dans l’océan Pacifique, dans la région de San Francisco. Il s’agit de l’une des dernières incarnations du rêve d’un grand fleuve de l’Ouest, équivalant à ce que le Mississippi était à l’est des Rocheuses. Un tel cours d’eau aurait permis de relier la côte est à la côte ouest directement, évitant de devoir passer par le cap Horn à l’extrême sud du continent. Il figura sur les cartes pendant plus de cinquante ans, et son existence ne fut définitivement infirmée qu’en 1844, lors de l’expédition Frémont.

Jusqu’à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, l’intérêt pour l’exploration de l’ouest du continent nord-américain, en particulier de la part des Britanniques, n’est pas dirigé vers l’implantation de colonies, mais vers la recherche d’une voie commerciale entre les villes du nord-est et l’Océan Pacifique. Le seul passage alors possible vers le Pacifique est le Cap Horn à la pointe de l’Amérique du Sud, ce qui signifie alors un voyage de presque une année. L’exploration du passage du nord-ouest s’est quant à elle heurtée aux glaces arctiques. La découverte d’une voie navigable au milieu de l’Amérique du Nord serait idéale. À défaut, la voie terrestre devait être la plus courte possible entre les voies navigables. Les Espagnols, dès 1531, avaient trouvé grâce à Hernán Cortés une connexion entre Veracruz sur le Golfe du Mexique et Acapulco (nommée alors Zacatula) sur le Pacifique, via Mexico, et, en grande partie, bâti sur elle leur suprématie dans l’Océan Pacifique.
À la fin du XVIIe siècle, des commerçants de fourrures français et britanniques s’enfoncent dans le continent en direction de l’ouest sur les Grands Lacs et la rivière Ohio. Ils découvrent le grand système fluvial du Mississippi et du Missouri ainsi que les Montagnes Rocheuses dont les fleuves s’écoulent sur le flanc oriental. Mais la structure de ces montagnes et le pays qui s’étend à l’ouest restent un sujet de conjectures, une Terra incognita. Seule la côte californienne est alors explorée. On suppose généralement qu’il doit y avoir aussi à l’Ouest de grands systèmes fluviaux qui coulent directement vers l’Océan Pacifique.
Les premières expéditions sont arrêtées par les montagnes. En 1793, pour le compte de la Compagnie britannique de la Baie d’Hudson, Alexander MacKenzie est le premier Occidental à atteindre le Pacifique par voie terrestre maillots adidas en ligne, au nord, à travers ce qui doit devenir le Canada.
Thomas Jefferson, le troisième président des jeunes États-Unis, a connaissance des rapports des explorateurs britanniques et souhaite mettre en valeur ces informations pour le bien-être de son pays. Après l’achat de la Louisiane par les États-Unis en 1803, il envoie (en 1804–1806) l’expédition Lewis et Clark vers les Montagnes rocheuses. Elle pénètre par le Missouri, traverse les montagnes par une route septentrionale en passant par le col du Lolo, atteint le Columbia et, en le suivant, le Pacifique. L’expédition rapporte à son retour que les Rocheuses sont dans cette région pratiquement infranchissables : elles ne peuvent être vaincues qu’à pied et sans lourdes charges. L’intérêt se tourne alors vers les parties méridionales et centrales des Montagnes Rocheuses.
En 1776, deux missionnaires franciscains, Francisco Atanasio Domínguez et Silvestre Vélez de Escalante lancel sac à main 2016, explorent un passage permettant de relier Santa Fe dans le Nouveau-Mexique espagnol à Monterey dans la Californie espagnole. Sur leur route, ils traversent la Green River, un affluent du Colorado, coulant du nord au sud et le nomment San Buenaventura en l’honneur de Saint Bonaventure. Peu après, ils découvrent la Sevier River et pensent qu’il s’agit toujours de la Buenaventura et que son cours s’infléchit au sud-ouest. Par conséquent, leur cartographe Bernardo Miera y Pacheco dessine la rivière, non comme un affluent du Colorado coulant vers le sud, mais comme partant au sud-ouest pour se jeter dans un lac, à qui il donne peu modestement son propre nom et que l’on identifie à un lac aujourd’hui asséché, le Lac Sevier. Au bord de la carte, il dessine des régions que l’expédition n’a pas observées elle-même, mais dont elle a eu connaissance par des rapports des Indiens. Y figure la première représentation du Grand Lac Salé, sous le nom de « Laguna de los Timpanogos ». À partir de là, Miera dessine un grand fleuve coulant vers l’ouest, montré comme navigable, qui se termine rapidement au bord de la carte.
Les missionnaires ne s’aventurent pas plus loin vers l’ouest et ne peuvent donc remplir leur mission. Mais dans une note d’accompagnement à l’attention du roi Charles III, Miera recommande d’organiser d’autres missions dans cette région, à partir du Lac Salé, et mentionne la possibilité d’une voie fluviale y menant à l’Océan Pacifique, en suivant soit la Buenaventura soit une prétendue Timpanogos River.
Les cartographes espagnols de la Californie, Francisco Garcés et Pedro Font, n’avaient de bonnes connaissances que des montagnes côtières et des vallées centrales. La Sierra Nevada, la chaîne de montagnes qui borde la Californie à l’Est nike soccer jerseys 2016 outlet, n’était pas explorée. Ils identifient donc les cours d’eau avec les représentations de Miera et lorsqu’en 1784, Manuel Augustin Mascaro et Miguel Constanso achèvent une carte de la Nouvelle-Espagne tout entière, ils reprennent les descriptions de leurs collègues. Ni l’Espagne, ni le Mexique ne se livrent à de nouvelles expéditions dans le Nord inexploré de leurs territoires, et les erreurs ne sont jamais corrigées. Étant donné qu’on ne dispose encore d’aucune détermination géodésique des distances, on ne remarque pas qu’entre les Rocheuses et la Sierra Nevada se trouvent environ 500 km qui sont sur ces premières cartes oubliés ou fortement raccourcis.
Les premiers cartographes des nouveaux États-Unis d’Amérique s’appuient eux aussi sur les cartes espagnoles. Alexander von Humboldt en 1804, William Clark en 1814 et Zebulon Pike dans son livre sur l’Ouest de 1810 associent selon le cas différents cours d’eau vus par eux-mêmes avec la Buenaventura, qu’ils croient reconnaître à partir des cartes espagnoles. Albert Finley et de nombreux cartographes utilisent ces ouvrages largement répandus comme fondements de leurs cartes. D’autres, plus sceptiques, mentionnent la Buenaventura comme douteuse, tel Sidney E. Morse en 1823. Albert Gallatin n’indique plus aucun fleuve dans la région du Buenaventura dans sa carte de l’Ouest de 1836.
Le trappeur et explorateur Jedediah Smith passe la crête des Montagnes Rocheuses en 1823-24 au South Pass et est le premier Américain à explorer avec ses collègues les rivières des flancs occidentaux. En 1827, il est aussi le premier Blanc à traverser la Sierra Nevada et le désert du Grand Bassin, dont l’étendue rend improbable l’existence d’un fleuve partant des Rocheuses vers l’ouest. Pendant les années 1827-28, il visite les vallées centrales de la Californie en direction du nord, à travers la région où devrait se situer la Buenaventura River, mais ne la trouve pas. Lorsque John Bidwell et Thomas Fitzpatrick en 1841 conduisent un premier petit groupe de colons en Californie par le South Pass, on recommande à Bidwell d’emporter du matériel pour construire un bateau afin de pouvoir naviguer à partir du Grand Lac Salé sur la Buenaventura. Bidwell trouve au bord du Grand Bassin la petite Humboldt River qu’avait décrite pour la première fois Peter Skene Ogden et trace en la suivant une partie du parcours connu sous le nom de Piste de la Californie. Mais il ne peut trouver un cours d’eau navigable à travers la Sierra Nevada.
Cest seulement en 1844 que l’expédition géographique de triangulation de John Charles Frémont prouve que le fleuve n’existe pas. Entre mai et octobre 1842, Frémont établit en compagnie de Thomas Fitzpatrick et de Kit Carson l’emplacement exact des points centraux des Montagnes rocheuses, puis progresse à partir de là vers l’ouest. En 1843-44, il mesure la Columbia River ainsi que la Sierra Nevada et des parties de la Californie 2016 Collection Sandro Femme. Une erreur de relevé sur la Walker River dans la Sierra Nevada californienne lui fait brièvement croire le 27 janvier 1844 à la découverte de la Buenaventura River, mais il reconnaît son erreur dès le 29 janvier. Pendant son voyage, il détermine pour la première fois les relations géographiques exactes et peut exclure l’existence d’un fleuve entre les Rocheuses et la Californie centrale.
Une fois établi qu’il n’existe aucune voie fluviale possible, Frémont et son beau-père et promoteur politique, le Sénateur Thomas Hart Benton, tournent leur intérêt vers une liaison transcontinentale par voie ferrée, de la côte Est à la côte Ouest, qui est finalement achevée en 1869.
Frémont est le premier à reconnaître que les précipitations des Montagnes Rocheuses centrales s’écoulent principalement vers l’est jusqu’au Missouri et au Mississippi et qu’à l’ouest s’étend un désert sans rivière. Presque toutes les rivières du versant ouest coulent au sud par la Green River jusqu’au Colorado ou vers le nord-ouest par la Snake River vers le Columbia ; seuls quelques petits cours d’eau débouchent directement à l’ouest dans le Grand Lac Salé. À l’ouest, la chaîne de la Sierra Nevada, qui s’étend dans la direction Nord-Sud, se termine au Grand Bassin ; ses cours d’eau vers l’ouest se jetant dans les deux fleuves de la Vallée centrale de Californie, le San Joaquin et le Sacramento. Tous deux débouchent dans le Pacifique dans la baie de San Francisco, au Golden Gate.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Sturmpanzer II

Der Sturmpanzer II „Bison“ war ein schweres Infanteriegeschütz (15-cm-sIG 33) auf einer Selbstfahrlafette.
Der erste Versuch, das schwere Infanteriegeschütz 33 auf ein Panzerchassis zu verlegen, war der Sturmpanzer I von 1940. Anfang 1941 wurde der Auftrag erteilt, ein ähnliches Fahrzeug auf Basis des PzKpfw II zu entwickeln. Alkett stellte im Oktober 1941 einen Prototyp vor, der nicht nur ausreichendend Platz für das Geschütz hatte, sondern auch den enormen Rückstoß auffangen konnte

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. Das Chassis war gegenüber dem des Panzer II um 32 cm verbreitert und um 60 cm verlängert, zudem war ein sechstes Laufrad hinzugefügt worden bogner daunenjacke 2016. Die Panzerung beschränkte sich auf einen Geschützschild und eine flache Seitenpanzerung. Das Geschütz selbst hatte eine Reichweite von 4700 Metern, es konnte als schweres Infanteriegeschütz oder als schwerer Mörser, abhängig vom Schusswinkel und der Ausgangsgeschwindigkeit des Geschosses benutzt werden Discount Nike Strumpf Steckdose 2016. Die Motorleistung war mäßig (die schwache Maschine überhitzte schnell) und die Lafette war schwer zu manövrieren bogner daunenjacke 2016.
Alle zwölf Fahrzeuge wurden, aufgeteilt auf zwei Kompanien, zwischen Februar und April 1942 zum Deutschen Afrikakorps verlegt und vor Tobruk eingesetzt. Schon nach kurzer Zeit galt der Bison II zwar als ein kampfstarkes, aber unzuverlässiges Fahrzeug, das ständige Wartung benötigte und sich daher nicht für das Zurücklegen weiterer Strecken eignete. Bis zum Dezember 1942 waren alle Fahrzeuge dieses Typs außer Dienst. Als Nachfolger wurde ab Ende 1941 das Sturminfanteriegeschütz 33 entwickelt.
Berichten nach stand ein Bison II im Palästinakrieg von 1948 in ägyptischen Diensten.
Panzer: Panzer I · Panzer II · Panzer 38(t) · Panzer III · Panzer IV · Panther · Tiger I · Tiger II 
Jagdpanzer: Panzerjäger I · Marder I · Marder II · Marder III · Nashorn · Jagdpanzer 38(t) · Jagdpanzer IV · Jagdpanther · Jagdtiger · Elefant 
Sturmpanzer Sturmpanzer I · Sturmpanzer II · Grille · Sturmgeschütz III · StuIG 33 B · Sturmhaubitze 42 · Sturmgeschütz IV · Sturmpanzer IV · Sturmtiger 

1972–73 Australian region cyclone season

The 1972-73 Australian region season saw average activity.

Tropical Cyclone Ivy developed over the eastern Indian Ocean on December 7. The cyclone entered the southwest Indian Ocean basin after crossing 80°E and was renamed Beatrice.
On January 10, Jean developed northwest of Western Australia. It strengthened into a Category 4 severe tropical cyclone, before being last noted on January 17.
At Wickham on 21 January 1973 more than 30 houses were partly unroofed and some houses received major damage. There was no damage to buildings in Dampier, Roebourne or Karratha as the cyclone crossed the coast well to the east. Kerry passed close to a number of oil-drilling rigs causing damage and lost productivity time that cost over one million dollars. Maximum recorded gust was 140 km/h at Cape Lambert.
Tropical Cyclone Leila formed offshore Western Australia on January 21. Moving generally westward, the storm crossed 80°E on January 23 and was renamed Gertrude.
Tropical Cyclone Adeline developed in the Gulf of Carpentaria on January 27. Moving south-southwestward, Adeline made landfall near the Northern Territory-Queensland border, shortly before dissipating on January 29.
Tropical Cyclone Maude existed offshore Western Australia from January 28 to January 31.
Tropical Cyclone Kristy developed southwest of the Solomon Islands on February 24. Heading generally southward, Kristy dissipated well east of New South Wales on March 1.
The next system, Cyclone Leah, formed near the coast of Western Australia on February 27. Moving southwestward, Leah eventually dissipated on March 11.
Cyclone Madge originated in the vicinity of the Solomon Islands on February 28. Tracking west-southwestward, Madge struck the Cape York Peninsula early on March 4

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. By late the following day, the cyclone made landfall near Numbulwar, Northern Territory. Moving across Northern Territory and Queesland, Madge emerged into the Indian Ocean on March 10. The storm headed generally westward for the next several days, until dissipating on March 18.
On March 13, Cyclone Nellie formed offshore Queensland. It moved generally west-southwestward before dissipated on March 23 2016 Nike fodbold hat online.
Cyclone Bella developed over the Arafura Sea on March 20. It struck North Territory before dissipating on March 25.
The next system, Cyclone Paula, formed southwest of Indonesia on March 26 bogner online shop. Paula moved southwestward and dissipated about six days later.
Cyclone Roma existed from April 18 to April 23.
The strongest tropical cyclone of the season, developed in the Banda Sea on April 26. The storm peaked with a barometric pressure of 950 mbar (28 inHg). The storm struck the island of Flores before dissipating on April 29.
Marcelle, the final tropical cyclone of the season, developed well west of Indonesia on April 29. The storm struck near Busselton, Western Australia late on May 7 The Kooples Couples. Marcelle dissipated well south of Australia about two days later.

Ski (matériel)

Le ski est un accessoire long, environ la taille de l’utilisateur, souvent fin, environ la largeur du pied de l’utilisateur, et plat (allure lisse de sa semelle), semi-rigide, fixé à la chaussure, permettant à une personne de skier, c’est-à-dire de glisser sur un matériau à faible frottement comme la neige. Il s’utilise le plus souvent par paire (un à chaque pied), mais il n’est pourtant que très rarement latéralisé (peu de ski gauche / ski droit) sortie de chemise de football adidas.
Initialement conçu comme une aide à se déplacer sur la neige, le ski s’est progressivement complexifié vers une forme et une structure de haute technologie accroissant le plaisir récréatif de la glisse, en participant ainsi au développement des sports d’hiver.

Le ski est partagé en trois parties : l’avant du ski ou spatule, le milieu du ski (sous les chaussures) ou patin, l’arrière du ski ou talon. Dans la plupart des cas, il a une symétrie structurelle axiale.
Vu de dessus 2016 pas cher soccer jerseys, le ski alpin moderne et actuel possède ce que le jargon appelle une taille de guêpe : la spatule et le talon sont plus larges que le patin. Cela se traduit par la définition d’une ligne de cotes, c’est-à-dire par la définition de la largeur du ski en ces trois points.
Quand un ski possède une taille de guêpe, on dit qu’il est profilé. Le ski parabolique est un modèle de ski profilé lancé par l’entreprise slovène Elan et qui connut un vif succès, dont le nom fait référence à la forme des bords du ski. Cette forme de parabole permet au ski maje soldes, si le skieur exerce une pression suffisante, de fléchir pour épouser la forme d’un virage en taillant la neige. Le skieur gagne donc en vitesse, puisque le ski ne dérape plus pendant le virage.
Le ski profilé est maintenant l’outil de choix pour une vaste gamme de terrains et d’adeptes : le débutant aimera la facilité avec lequel celui-ci se manœuvre dès les premières descentes, alors que l’expert appréciera sa polyvalence et sa rapidité de mouvement, même à grande vitesse. Cependant, depuis quelques années, plusieurs skis ayant un profil beaucoup moins prononcé ont fait leur apparition sur les pentes et gagné la faveur du consommateur moyen, notamment pour des usages particuliers, comme le ski hors piste ou les acrobaties. Certains skis ont même une spatule et un talon de dimensions inférieures au patin (par exemple les Armada ARG). Cette construction répartit le poids du skieur sur une plus large surface de contact et, en retour, permet une plus grande flottabilité dans la poudreuse.
De plus, les dimensions et la construction du ski sont parfois dictées par des normes très précises. Pensons ici aux skis de slalom qui, selon les normes FIS, doivent mesurer 165 centimètres pour les hommes et 155 centimètres pour les femmes au minimum, mais ils ont également des restrictions concernant la longueur dans toutes les disciplines et le rayon des skis pour les compétitions internationales (FIS). Elles sont par exemple d’un radius (rayon de courbe) de 23 en 2007 et sera de 27 en 2008 (il ne faut pas oublier qu’il existe une tolérance d’un an avant la mise en conformité des skis des coureurs qui sont sur les circuits FIS A, B, C, D). Ces normes changent souvent mais les skis des disciplines de vitesse doivent dépasser 200 centimètres pour les deux sexes[réf. nécessaire].
Les principaux éléments d’un ski sont :
En 1868, le norvégien Sondre Norheim invente le ski qui s’appellera Télémark, du nom de la région où il habite crampons de football de puma pas cher. C’est le premier ski dont la largeur du centre est inférieure à celle des extrémités.
En 1905, l’armée française construit pour la première fois en série des skis, à Briançon.
À l’origine plus grand que le skieur, le ski peut maintenant être plus petit que lui grâce aux avancées technologiques, et notamment à la forme parabolique. Cette forme parabolique est apparue en 1993.
De 5,3 millions de paires de ski vendues dans le monde en 1971-1972, le marché mondial est passé à 11,3 millions de paires en 1979. 6 millions de paires de skis on été vendues dans le monde en 1994, 5,2 millions en 1996 puis 4,6 millions en 1997, et 4,2 millions en 1998. 7 millions de paires ont été vendues en 2002, 4,62 millions en 2005 et le marché était de 463 millions d’euros pour 4,64 millions de paires de ski alpin en 2006.
En 2008, le marché était de 382 millions d’euros : 295 pour le ski et 87 pour le snowboard avec 3,5 millions de paires de skis vendues dans le monde, dont 450 000 en France (12,9 %) ou 60 % des ventes se font pour la location. En 2008/2009, 470 000 paires ont été vendues en France. Toujours de 3,5 millions de paires en 2010, le marché mondial était réparti à 60 % en Europe, 30 % en Amérique du nord et 10 % pour le reste du monde. En 2015, le marché global est d’un peu moins de 5 millions de paires de skis, en baisse de 5%

Said Sebti

Said Sebti (Arabic: سيد سبتي‎ Cheap Spy Sunglasses Sale 2016, (first name (pronounced [ˈsæjjɪd]) is an American cancer researcher who is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Drug Discovery at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute in Tampa, Fl

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. Sebti is noted for his work to rehabilitate the ‘failed’ cancer drug Triciribine, now under development at the pharmaceutical company Prescient Therapeutics (ASX: PTX). Sebti is currently Chief Scientific Officer at Prescient Therapeutics Ted Baker Dresses outlet.

Sebti earned his Bachelor’s Degree in Biochemistry from Washington State University in 1980 and his PhD in Biochemistry from Purdue University in 1984. From 1985 to 1987 he did post-doctoral work in pharmacology at Yale University. He then spent three years as an Assistant Professor at the University of Pittsburgh before joining Moffitt Cancer Center in 1996 as Director of its Drug Discovery Program. He was named Professor and Chairman of the Department of Drug Discovery in 2002.
Normal cells often turn cancerous when signal transduction molecules become mutated. Sebti’s work at Moffitt has centred on understanding aberrant signal transduction pathways and developing drugs which interfere with such pathways.
Prescient Therapeutics originated in 2014 from two drug discovery programmes pioneered by the Sebti lab, PTX-200 and PTX-100

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