RTL 102.5

RTL 102.5 ist ein italienischer privater Hörfunksender und Fernsehsender mit Sitz in Mailand. Der Sender wird landesweit über UKW ausgestrahlt billig Puma Fußballschuhe Steckdose 2016, vorwiegend auf der Frequenz 102,5 MHz in einem Gleichwellennetz. Zudem ist er über Satellit (Eutelsat Hotbird) via DVB-S europaweit unverschlüsselt zu empfangen.

RTL 102.5 startete 1975 als Lokalsender in Bergamo unter dem Namen Radio Trasmissioni Lombarde (RTL). Ab 1988 wurde die Reichweite des Programms auf Norditalien ausgedehnt, 1990 erhielt es schließlich eine der 14 landesweiten Hörfunklizenzen.
In der Altersgruppe von 18 bis 40 Jahren erreichte der Radiosender 2007 eine wöchentliche Einschaltquote von 16,433 Mio. Zuhörern und war somit der beliebteste Radiosender Italiens.
Der Gruppe gehören auch RTL 102.5 Openspace und der Fernsehsender RTL 102 Neueste Bogner Skijacken Online Shop.5 TV nike soccer Ausrüstungen Online-Shop 2016, der im September 2007 die Formel radiovisione startete, die es ermöglicht, die Moderation und das Video zum Lied in Fernsehen zu sehen.
Im Jahr 2010 war der Sender die erste private italienische landesweit ausgestrahlte Radiostation, die die Rechte zur Ausstrahlung der Fußballspiele der WM 2010 in Südafrika erwarb.
Das Netzwerk hatte bereits für die Spiele der Europameisterschaft 2008 in Österreich und der Schweiz die Ausstrahlungsrechte erworben. Später verfügte es über die Ausstrahlungsrechte für die Spiele der Fußball-Europameisterschaft 2012 in Polen und der Ukraine. Die Spiele Italiens wurden dabei von Paolo Pacchioni und alle anderen von Gialappa Band kommentiert. Im Jahr 2011 war der RTL 102.5 der zweitmeistgehörte und im Jahr 2012 der meistgehörte Radiosender Italiens.
Das Programm orientiert sich musikalisch an einem „Hit-Radio“-Format. Es werden hauptsächlich aktuelle Hits aus der Welt und Italien gesendet nike footaball Strumpf und Kappe Auslass.

Andy Dirks

Andrew Lee Dirks (né le 24 janvier 1986 à Hutchinson, Kansas 2016 maillots de football, États-Unis) est un voltigeur des Ligues majeures de baseball sous contrat avec les Blue Jays de Toronto.

Joueur à l’Université Wichita State à Wichita, Kansas, Andy Dirks est drafté en huitième ronde par les Tigers de Detroit en 2008.
Dans les ligues mineures, il démontre tant de la puissance à l’attaque que de la vitesse autour des buts : en 2009 maillots de football 2016 sale, pour deux clubs affiliés aux Tigers maillots de foot vente, il totalise 62 points produits et 21 buts volés en 125 parties. Puis en 2010, avec les équipes de Erie (niveau AA) et Toledo (niveau AAA), il frappe 15 coups de circuit, produit 63 points et vole 22 buts en 125 rencontres.
À la mi-mai 2011, Dirks affiche une moyenne au bâton de ,328 après 34 parties chez les Mud Hens de Toledo dans la Ligue internationale, avec six doubles, six circuits et 20 points produits, lorsque Detroit décide de le rappeler avec le grand club pour la première fois lorsque Magglio Ordóñez se blesse à la cheville.
Andy Dirks fait ses débuts dans les majeures avec les Tigers de Detroit le 16 mai 2011. Inséré au champ gauche dans la formation partante de son équipe face aux Blue Jays de Toronto, il réussit son premier coup sûr au plus haut niveau face au lanceur Kyle Drabek. Il frappe son premier coup de circuit le 23 mai contre Jeremy Hellickson des Rays de Tampa Bay. Il frappe son premier circuit le 23 mai aux dépens de Jeremy Hellickson des Rays de Tampa Bay. Il termine sa première saison avec 7 circuits et 28 points produits en 78 rencontres. Il fait ses débuts en éliminatoires durant la Série de championnat de la Ligue américaine entre les Tigers et les Rangers du Texas. Il frappe un coup sûr en cinq présences au bâton et réussit un vol de but.
En 2012, il maintient une brillante moyenne au bâton de ,322 en 344 passages au bâton. En 88 matchs des Tigers, il frappe 8 circuits et récolte 35 points produits. Il participe également aux éliminatoires et réussit un coup sûr dans la Série mondiale 2012 perdue par Détroit aux mains des Giants de San Francisco.
En 2013, le voltigeur s’aligne pour 131 matchs avec les Tigers. Sa moyenne au bâton chute à ,256 alors qu’il atteint de nouveaux sommets personnels de 9 circuits et 37 points produits.
En 2014, à la suite d’un opération au dos, Dirks est limité à 14 parties des ligues mineures et aucune des Tigers sandro femme.
Le 31 octobre 2014, Dirks est réclamé au ballottage par les Blue Jays de Toronto.

Victurnien-Jean-Baptiste de Rochechouart de Mortemart

Victurnien Jean-Baptiste Marie de Rochechouart, prince of Tonnay-Charente then 9th duke of Mortemart (8 February 1752, in Everly – 4 July 1812, in Paris) was a French general and politician. He came from the Mortemart branch of the house of Rochechouart, named after the barony of Mortemart in Haute-Vienne, later raised to a marquisate and finally in December 1650 to a peer-duchy.

Victurnien-Jean-Baptiste was the second son of Jean-Victor de Rochechouart (1712–1771)

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, duke of Mortemart and of Charlotte Nathalie de Manneville gafas gucci. In October 1768 he joined the artillery school in Strasbourg. On 20 March 1774 he was made colonel of the régiment de Lorraine-Infanterie, later rising to brigadier of infantry on 1 January 1784 and maréchal-de-camp on 9 March 1788.
After taking part in the second Assembly of Notables and supporting Protestants’ claims in the parlement (where he appeared as a peer), on 24 March 1789 he was elected a noble deputy for the bailliage of Sens in the Estates General of 1789. There he supported Jacques Necker’s plans, but opposed the reforms demanded by the majority of the assembly – he notably protested against the suppression of the rights of péage and minage. He resigned on 20 April 1790 and left France the following year. He fought with the royalist army in the 1792 campaign and then moved to England, where he was welcomed by George III with “kindness” and “distinction”.
Commanding the régiment de Mortemart (a French émigré corps in British pay) robes ted baker, de Mortemart returned to continental Europe in autumn 1794 and the following year joined the force which landed on Guernsey

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. In 1796 he moved to Portugal, where he served until 1802. His regiment was disbanded at the Peace of Amiens and de Mortemart returned to France “where he lived peacefully”. Napoleon I made him a member of the conseil général for the Seine department on 26 March 1812, but he died suddenly in July that year from a vicious fever.
De Mortemart was also a man of letters, leaving behind several unedited works “of a superior quality”, such as a poem on the theme of Joseph in Egypt and a verse translation of John Milton’s Paradise Lost, along with several tales and light poems.
He married twice:

Børre Knudsen

Børre Arnold Knudsen (24 September 1937 – 17 August 2014) was a Norwegian Lutheran priest noted for his pro-life activism.
Together with Ludvig Nessa herve leger dress sale, he staged protests at abortion clinics as well as other public stunts starting in the late 1980s, and he spent time in jail for refusing to pay fines received for his protests.
Dismissed as parish priest of Balsfjord in 1983 due to his refusal to perform his official state duties in protest against new abortion laws, he helped establish the Deanery of Strandebarm in 1991, also known as the “Church of Norway in Exile” cheap soccer jacket. He was ordained as bishop by the church in 1997 until retiring in 2008 due to failing health. He was defrocked from the Church of Norway in 2001.
Knudsen was also noted as a prolific hymn poet, and two of his hymns has later been included in the Norwegian hymn book, as well as the hymn books of other churches.

Knudsen was born in Vennesla, Vest-Agder to priest Rolf Godwin Knudsen (1907–56) and Nina Lydersen (1913–95). He grew up in Langesund where his father was the local parish priest. His father was arrested and defrocked during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, causing a lasting impression on Knudsen. His mother also did resistance work, and the family was forced to move to neutral Sweden for a time during the war. They moved to Bergen in 1952, and Knudsen started studying theology in 1956. He completed his seminary education in 1966 and was ordained as a priest in the Church of Norway in 1967. He served as an assistant priest in Balsfjord, Troms from 1968 until 1971, when he was made priest of the parish there.
In 1979, when the Norwegian parliament finalized legislation allowing abortion on demand in the first trimester, Knudsen protested by refusing to perform any duties on behalf of the Norwegian state. He claimed to model his actions from the Norwegian bishops and majority of priests’ opposition to the Nazi-friendly regime in Norway during the occupation in the Second World War. He continued his duties as a minister of the church and pastor for his congregation, but did not report statistics to the state, issue birth certificates or open mail addressed to him as a civil servant. He neither accepted his salary from the state.
Minister of Church and Education Einar Førde dismissed Knudsen from his post for neglecting his duties, but Knudsen refused to leave his pastoral duties. His active congregation insisted that he was still their pastor and urged him not to leave. Knudsen was sued by the state, but won the first round. He eventually lost the case on appeal to the Supreme Court of Norway in 1983. The Supreme Court decision held that the state part of the church office could not be separated from the ecclesial or spiritual part of it within a State Church. Knudsen was replaced as parish priest in Balsfjord, but most of his active congregation followed him in establishing an independent local elect congregation in the tradition of the Norwegian Lutheran church.
Two other priests, Ludvig Nessa and Per Kørner, joined him in his protest and were also terminated from their posts and defrocked. In 1987, these three started non-violent protests at abortion clinics, turning up in traditional ministerial robes and singing psalms. They also performed other public stunts such as symbolic burials of small coffins, and pouring blood over themselves outside the Norwegian parliament. They would continue until they were brought in by the police and received fines. Knudsen was jailed for three weeks in 1994 for not having paid his fines received for protests at abortion clinics. The three established the Deanery of Strandebarm in 1991, proclaiming it the “Church of Norway in Exile”. Knudsen was ordained bishop of the church on 6 April 1997 at a sermon in Kautokeino, after two new priests had joined the cause the same year. Knudsen was finally defrocked from the Church of Norway in 2001

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. He resigned as “anti-bishop” in 2008 due to failing health.
Knudsen was a noted hymn poet, and wrote hymn poetry in the traditions of Petter Dass, Thomas Kingo and Grundtvig. Some of his hymns were included in the official hymn books of other churches, and he initially refused to have them admitted in the Norwegian hymn book, although two have later been included.
Knudsen wrote a large amount of hymn poetry, and collections of some of his sermons have been printed in books and booklets. His hymns point to Chalcedonian Christology, and to a high interpretation of the sacraments. His hymns are mainly edited in Det Hellige Bryllup, (Oslo 1976) Sangverk for Den Norske kirke, (Oslo 1980), and may be found in the Norwegian 1998 Roman Catholic Hymn book as well as in other collections.[citation needed]
Knudsen married Ragnhild Knudsen (née Iden) in 1964. They had five children together.
A documentary about Knudsen and his life premiered at Norwegian cinemas in March 2014 titled “En prest og en plage”, which portrayed the aging Knudsen in a close-up personal and somewhat more sympathetic light. Considered a generally somewhat more respected figure among the Norwegian anti-abortionists, some long-time critics of Knudsen voiced their respect for his dedication and for his hymn poetry after his death.
He was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 2004, and spent his last winters in Altea, Spain. Knudsen died in 2014 at his home in Mestervik in Balsfjord casual dresses, Troms.

Sitalk Peak

Sitalk Peak (Vrah Sitalk \’vr&h si-‘talk\) is a rocky peak of elevation 600 m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated at the end of a side ridge rinning northwards from Great Needle Peak, and linked to a rocky part of that ridge featuring Tutrakan Peak to the south by a 100-metre long ice-covered saddle. Surmounting Huron Glacier and its tributaries to the north, east and west. The peak is named after the Thracian King Sitalk, 431-424 BC.
The peak is located at 62°38′49.7″S 60°03′38″W / 62.647139°S 60.06056°W / -62.647139; -60 juicy couture sale.06056Coordinates: 62°38′49.7″S 60°03′38″W / 62 cheap bags sale.647139°S 60.06056°W / -62.647139 tory burch sale; -60.06056, which is 700 m north of Tutrakan Peak, 750 m northeast of Plana Peak, 1

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.46 km east of Nestinari Nunataks, 1.93 km southeast of Kukeri Nunataks and 1.34 km west-southwest of Intuition Peak (Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05, and mapping in 2005 and 2009).
This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.

Shia Islam in Lebanon

Shia Islam in Lebanon has a history of more than a millennium. According to CIA study, Lebanese Shia Muslims constitute 27% of Lebanon’s population of approximately 4.3 million, which means they amount to 1,160,000. According to other sources the Lebanese Shia Muslims constitute approximately 40% of the entire population (or 1.6 million out of a total population of 4 million).
Most of its adherents live in the northern and western area of the Beqaa Valley, Southern Lebanon and Beirut’s southern suburbs. The great majority of Shia Muslims in Lebanon are Twelvers, with an Alawite minority numbering in the tens of thousands in north Lebanon. Few Ismailis remain in Lebanon today, though the quasi-Muslim Druze sect, which split from Ismailism around a millennium ago, has hundreds of thousands of adherents.
Under the terms of an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, Shias are the only sect eligible for the post of Speaker of Parliament.

The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a blend of both indigenous Phoenician elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years converse online shop. In a 2013 interview the lead investigator, Pierre Zalloua, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions:”Lebanon already had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, and religions came as layers of paint on top. There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries significantly more Phoenician than another.”
Genealogical DNA testing has shown that 24.8% of Lebanese Muslims (non-Druze) belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup J1. Although there is common ancestral roots, these studies show some difference was found between Muslims and non-Muslims in Lebanon, of whom only 17.1% have this haplotype. As haplogroup J1 finds its putative origins in the Arabian peninsula, this likely means that the lineage was introduced by Arabs beginning at the time of the 7th century Muslim conquest of the Levant and has persisted among the Muslim population ever since. On the other hand, only 4.7% of all Lebanese Muslims belong to haplogroup R1b, compared to 9.6% of Lebanese Christians. Modern Muslims in Lebanon thus do not seem to have a significant genetic influence from the Crusaders, who probably introduced this common Western Europen marker to the extant Christian populations of the Levant when they were active in the region from 1096 until around the turn of the 14th century. Haplogroup J2 is also a significant marker in throughout Lebanon (29%). This marker found in many inhabitants of Lebanon, regardless of religion, signals pre-Arab descendants, including the Phoenicians. These genetic studies show us there is no significant differences between the Muslims and non-Muslims of Lebanon.
A Shia emirate was established in Keserwan a mountain region overlooking the coastal area north of Beirut, in which they prospered for the next five centuries.[citation needed] The growth of Shia Islam in Lebanon stopped around the late thirteenth century, and subsequently Shia communities decreased in size. Keserwan began to lose its Shia character under the Assaf Sunni Turkomans whom the Mamluks appointed as overlords of the area in 1306. The process intensified around 1545 when the Maronites started migrating to Keserwan and Jbeil, encouraged by the Assafs, who sought to use them as a counterweight to the Shia Himada sheikhs who reemerged in Kesrewan in the 16th century. When in 1605 the Druze emir Fakhr al-Din Ma’n II took over Kesrewan, he entrusted its management to the Khazin Maronite family. The Khazins gradually colonized Kesrewan, purchasing Shia lands and founding churches and monasteries. They emerged as the predominant authority in the region at the expense of the Shia Hamedeh clan. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Khazins owned Kesrewan and only a few Shia villages survived. During the time of the Ottoman Empire the Shias suffered religious persecution and were often forced to flee their homes in search of refuge in the South. One example is the Lebanese city of Tripoli, which had formerly had a Shia Muslim majority. Many Lebanese Shia are rumored to have concealed their religious sect and acted as Sunni Muslims in fear of persecution. It is also rumored[by whom?] that some of the Shia permanently adopted the Sunni Muslim sect. The Ottomans and Druze were well allied and a Druze family seized power of Tripoli. Maronites who were persecuted by the Ottoman’s and the Druze, sought refuge amongst the newly relocated Shia population in the South. Jezzine, once famously known as a Shia capital in Lebanon juicy couture outlet, is now known as a major Christian city in the South. The Shias withdrew further south and eventually had to abandon even Jezzine, which until the mid-eighteenth century had functioned as a center of Shia learning in Lebanon.
The growth of Shia Islam in Lebanon stopped around the late thirteenth century, and subsequently Shia communities decreased in size. This development may be traced to 1291, when the Sunni Mamluks sent numerous military expeditions to subdue the Shias of Keserwan, a mountain region overlooking the coastal area north of Beirut. The first two Mamluk expeditions were defeated by the Shia in Keserwan. The third expedition, on the other hand, was overwhelmingly large and was able to defeat the Shia in Keserwan; many were brutally slaughtered, some fled through the mountains to northern Beqaa while others fled moving through the Beqaa plain, to a new safe haven in Jezzine. Keserwan began to lose its Shia character under the Assaf Sunni Turkomans whom the Mamluks appointed as overlords of the area in 1306. The process intensified around 1545 when the Maronites started migrating to Keserwan and Jbeil, encouraged by the Assafs, who sought to use them as a counterweight to the Shia Himada sheikhs who reemerged in Kesrewan. When in 1605 the Druze emir Fakhr al-Din Ma’n II took over Kesrewan, he entrusted its management to the Khazin Maronite family. The Khazins gradually colonized Kesrewan, purchasing Shia lands and founding churches and monasteries. They emerged as the predominant authority in the region at the expense of the Shia Hamedeh clan. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Khazins owned Kesrewan and only a few Shia villages survived.
During the time of the Ottoman Empire, the Shias suffered religious persecution and were often forced to flee their homes in search of refuge in the South. In response to the growth of Shiism, the Ottoman Empire put Shias to the sword in Anatolia. Hundreds of thousands of Shias were massacred in the Ottoman Empire, including the Alevis in Turkey, the Alawis in Syria and the Shi’a of Lebanon. One example is the Lebanese city of Tripoli, which had formerly had a Shia Muslim majority. Many Lebanese Shia are rumored to have concealed their religious sect and acted as Sunni Muslims in fear of persecution. It is also rumored[by whom?] that some of the Shia permanently adopted the Sunni Muslim sect. The Ottomans and Druze were well allied and a Druze family seized power of Tripoli. Maronites who were persecuted by the Ottoman’s and the Druze, sought refuge amongst the newly relocated Shia population in the South. Jezzine, once famously known as a Shia capital in Lebanon, is now known as a major Christian city in the South. The Shias withdrew further south and eventually had to abandon even Jezzine, which until the mid-eighteenth century had functioned as a center of Shia learning in Lebanon. The traditional accounts of Shia “persecution” in Lebanon, however, which are largely based on family legends, are seriously called into question by the Ottoman documentation available in the state archives in Istanbul or local sharia archives in Tripoli. According to these, leading Shia families such as the Hamadas in Tripoli, the Harfushes in the Beqaa or the Ali al-Saghirs in Jabal ‘Amil were co-opted into the Ottoman system of government, serving as tax farmers (multezim) over huge areas and enjoying other government offices (sancak-beylik governorships, etc.) in the region.
Although the Jabal ‘Amil enjoyed a degree of autonomy in the eighteenth century under the leader of the Ali al-Saghirs, Nasif al-Nassar, and the Arab leader of northern Palestine, Zahir al-Umar, this ended with the Ottoman appointment of Ahmad al-Jazzar as governor of Sidon province (1775–1804). Jazzar crushed the military power of the Shia clan leaders and burned the libraries of the religious scholars using the Druze tribes established in the Shouf, mainly the strong Nakad family, allied to the Maan. He established a centralized administration in the Shia areas and brought their revenues and cash crops under his domain. By the late eighteenth century, the Shias of the Jabal ‘Amil lost their independent spirit and adopted an attitude of political defeat. Al-Jezzar was nicknamed “the butcher” and a big population of the Shia were killed under his rule in Lebanon.
During most of the Ottoman period, the Shia largely maintained themselves as ‘a state apart’, although they found common ground with their fellow Lebanese, the Maronites; this may have been due to the persecutions both sects faced. They maintained contact with the Safavid dynasty of Persia, where they helped establish Shia Islam as the state religion of Persia during the Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism. Since most of the population embraced Sunni Islam and since an educated version of Shiism was scarce in Iran at the time, Ismail imported a new Shia Ulema corps from traditional Shiite centers of the Arabic speaking lands, such as Jabal Amil (of Southern Lebanon), Bahrain and Southern Iraq in order to create a state clergy. Ismail offered them land and money in return for loyalty. These scholars taught the doctrine of Twelver Shiism and made it accessible to the population and energetically encouraged conversion to Shiism. To emphasize how scarce Twelver Shiism was then to be found in Iran, a chronicler tells us that only one Shia text could be found in Ismail’s capital Tabriz. Thus it is questionable whether Ismail and his followers could have succeeded in forcing a whole people to adopt a new faith without the support of the Arab Shiite scholars.
These contacts further angered the Ottoman Sultan, who had already viewed them as religious heretics. The Sultan was frequently at war with the Persians, as well as being, in the role of Caliph, the leader of the majority Sunni community. Shia Lebanon, when not subject to political repression, was generally neglected, sinking further and further into the economic background. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the Comte de Volmy was to describe the Shia as a distinct society.[citation needed]
The Shias in Lebanon were the first to resist the French occupation. Following the creation of the French mandate, armed rebels led by Adham Khanjar and Sadiq Hamzeh attacked French positions in Southern Lebanon, including an unsuccessful attempt on French High Commissioner Henri Gouraud in which Khanjar was captured and later executed.
Shia Twelvers in Lebanon refers to the Shia Muslim Twelver community with a significant presence in north Lebanon (Kesrawan and Batroun), the South Lebanon, the Beqaa and South Beirut suburbs.
The jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire was merely nominal in the Lebanon. Baalbek in the 18th century was really under the control of the Metawali, which also refers to the Shia Twelvers. Mutawili or mutawalli is also the name of a trustee in Islamic waqf-system.
Seven Shia Twelver (Metawali) villages that were reassigned from French Greater Lebanon to the British Mandate of Palestine in a 1924 border-redrawing agreement were depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and repopulated with Jews. The seven villages are Qadas, Nabi Yusha, al-Malikiyya, Hunin, Tarbikha, Abil al-Qamh, and Saliha.
In addition, the Shia Twelvers in Lebanon have close links to the Syrian Shia Twelvers.
There are an estimated 40,000 to 120,000 Alawites in Lebanon, where they have lived since at least the 16th century. They are recognized as one of the 18 official Lebanese sects, and due to the efforts of their leader Ali Eid, the Taif Agreement of 1989 gave them two reserved seats in the Parliament. Lebanese Alawites live mostly in the Jabal Mohsen neighbourhood of Tripoli, and in 15 villages in the Akkar region, and are mainly represented by the Arab Democratic Party. Bab al-Tabbaneh, Jabal Mohsen clashes between pro-Syrian Alawites and anti-Syrian Sunnis have haunted Tripoli for decades jordan shoes cheap.
Ismailism, or “Sevener Shi’ism”, is a branch of Shia Islam which emerged in 765 from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad. Ismailis hold that Isma’il ibn Jafar was the true seventh imam, and not Musa al-Kadhim as the Twelvers believe. Ismaili Shi’ism also differs doctrinally from Imami Shi’ism, having beliefs and practices that are more esoteric and maintaining seven pillars of faith rather than five pillars and ten ancillary precepts.
Though perhaps somewhat better established in neighbouring Syria, where the faith founded one of its first da’wah outposts in the city of Salamiyah (the supposed resting place of the Imam Isma’il) in the 8th century, it has been present in what is now Lebanon for centuries. Early Lebanese Ismailism showed perhaps an unusual propensity to foster radical movements within it, particularly in the areas of Wadi al-Taym, adjoining the Beqaa valley at the foot of Mount Hermon, and Jabal Shuf, in the highlands of Mount Lebanon.
The syncretic beliefs of the Qarmatians, typically classed as an Ismaili splinter sect with Zoroastrian influences, spread into the area of the Beqaa valley and possibly also Jabal Shuf starting in the 9th century. The group soon became widely vilified in the Islamic world for its armed campaigns across throughout the following decades, which included slaughtering Muslim pilgrims and sacking Mecca and Medina—and Salamiyah. Other Muslim rulers soon acted to crush this powerful heretical movement. In the Levant, the Qarmatians were ordered to be stamped out by the ruling Fatimid, themselves Ismailis and from whom the lineage of the modern Nizari Aga Khan is claimed to descend. The Qarmatian movement in the Levant was largely extinguished by the turn of the millennium.
The semi-divine personality of the Fatimid caliph in Ismailism was elevated further in the doctrines of a secretive group which began to venerate the caliph Hakim as the embodiment of divine unity. Unsuccessful in the imperial capital of Cairo, they began discreetly proselytising around the year 1017 among certain Arab tribes in the Levant. The Ismailis of Wadi al-Taym and Jabal Shuf were among those who converted before the movement was permanently closed off a few decades later to guard against outside prying by mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims, who often viewed their doctrines as heresy. This deeply esoteric group became known as the Druze, who in belief, practice, and history have long since become distinct from Ismailis proper. Druzes constitute 5% of the modern population of Lebanon and still have a strong demographic presence in their traditional regions within the country to this day.
Due to official persecution by the Sunni Zengid dynasty that stoked escalating sectarian clashes with Sunnis, many Ismailis in the regions of Damascus and Aleppo are said to have fled west during the 12th century. Some settled in the mountains of Lebanon, while others settled further north along the coastal ridges in Syria, where the Alawites had earlier taken refuge—and where their brethren in the Assassins were cultivating a fearsome reputation as they staved off armies of Crusaders and Sunnis alike for many years.
Once far more numerous and widespread in many areas now part of Lebanon, the Ismaili population has largely vanished over time. It has been suggested that Ottoman-era persecution might have spurred them to leave for elsewhere in the region, though there is no record or evidence of any kind of large exodus.
Ismailis were originally included as one of five officially-defined Muslim sects in a 1936 edict issued by the French Mandate governing religious affairs in the territory of Greater Lebanon, alongside Sunnis, Twelver Shias, Alawites, and Druzes. However, Muslims collectively rejected being classified as divided, and so were left out of the law in the end. Ignored in a post-independence law passed in 1951 that defined only Judaism and Christian sects as official, Muslims continued under traditional Ottoman law, within the confines of which small communities like Ismailis and Alawites found it difficult to establish their own institutions.
The Aga Khan IV made a brief stop in Beirut on 4 August 1957 while on a global tour of Nizari Ismaili centres, drawing an estimated 600 Syrian and Lebanese followers of the religion to the Beirut Airport in order to welcome him. In the mid-1980s, several hundred Ismailis were thought to still live in a few communities scattered across several parts of Lebanon. Though they are nominally counted among the 18 officially-recognised sects under modern Lebanese law jimmy choo pas cher, they currently have no representation in state functions and continue to lack personal status laws for their sect, which has led to increased conversions to established sects to avoid the perpetual inconveniences this produces.
War in the region has also caused pressures on Lebanese Ismailis. In the 2006 Lebanon War, Israeli warplanes bombed the factory of the Maliban Glass company in the Beqaa valley on 19 July. The factory was bought in the late 1960s by the Madhvani Group under the direction of Ismaili entrepreneur Abdel-Hamid al-Fil after the Aga Khan personally brought the two into contact. It had expanded over the next few decades from an ailing relic to the largest glass manufacturer in the Levant, with 300 locally hired workers producing around 220,000 tons of glass per day. Al-Fil closed the plant down on 15 July just after the war broke out to safeguard against the deaths of workers in the event of such an attack, but the damage was estimated at a steep 55 million US dollars, with the reconstruction timeframe indefinite due to instability and government hesitation.
Lebanese Shia Muslims are concentrated in the south Beirut and its southern suburbs, northern and western area of the Beqaa Valley, Southern Lebanon, Tripoli and Akkar region.
The last census in Lebanon in 1932 put the numbers of Shias at 20% of the population (155,000 of 791,700). A study done by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1985 put the numbers of Shias at 41% of the population (919,000 of 2,228,000).
According to another CIA study, the Shia Muslims constitutes 27% of Lebanons’s population of approximately 4.3 million, which means they amount to 1,160,000 as of 2012.
According to other sources, the Lebanese Shia Muslims have become the single largest religious community in Lebanon, constituting approximately 40 percent of the entire population (or 1.6 million out of a total population of 4 million).
These are notable Lebanese Shia Muslim families:

Warren Berger (writer)

Warren Berger (born October 20, 1958) is an American journalist and host of the website “A More Beautiful Question,” which is the title of his latest book, published by Bloomsbury in March 2014. Berger has written five other books (two as co-author) and numerous articles, primarily on innovation, design, mass media, and popular culture.

Warren Berger grew up in Whitestone, New York, the youngest of seven children. He graduated from Syracuse University’s S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications in 1980. After working as a newspaper journalist in Dallas, Berger moved back to New York and worked for several years as a magazine editor for CBS.
In 1990, Berger founded his independent writing business, with The New York Times as one of the main outlets for his writing. He wrote a business column for the Sunday Times, and also contributed culture articles regularly to the Arts & Leisure section as well as The New York Times Magazine. His feature stories also appeared in GQ 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online, The Los Angeles Times Magazine, New York magazine, Reader’s Digest, and Business 2.0. He served as a contributing editor at Wired magazine from 1999 to 2001.
Simultaneously, Berger pursued his interest in creativity in advertising by writing many articles for Ad Age’s Creativity, Communication Arts, Graphis, and Metropolis. In the mid-1990s, he formed an association with The One Club for Art & Copy, helping them launch the bimonthly publication ONE, about creativity in advertising, and then in 2007 launching the quarterly ONE: DESIGN. In 2001, he wrote the book Advertising Today, published by Phaidon Press. The book was included on Barnes & Noble’s best books of the year list, and was later included in a list of the “50 all time best books about media” compiled by The Independent of London.
Berger’s current project, A MORE BEAUTIFUL QUESTION: The Power of Inquiry to Spark Breakthrough Ideas, (Bloomsbury), is an examination of the ways deep questioning can lead to innovation and change, and how we can get better at doing it in both business and daily life. For the 250-page book, Berger interviewed leaders at dozens of companies such as Google, Netflix, IDEO, and airbnb, as well as hundreds of entrepreneurs, educators, artists, social activists, and basement tinkerers about the role of questioning in their successes. (See reviews and “Best of 2014” list citations for A More Beautiful Question.) Berger’s website “AMoreBeautifulQuestion.com” features hundreds of articles, videos, studies, and links about the powerful role of questioning in business, education, and daily life. Berger also speaks on the topics of innovation and questioning at businesses and conferences around the world Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016.
Berger’s interest in questioning grew out of his 2009 book GLIMMER (published by The Penguin Press in the U.S.; Random House in Canada and Europe), which explored how designers think and innovate. Glimmer took readers behind-the-scenes into studios such as IDEO 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online, Pentagram, and Smart Design, and schools such as Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) and the Stanford Graduate School of Product Design (the d.school), as well as profiling many international design thinkers including Marianne Cusato, Dean Kamen, Yves Behar, Brian Collins rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016, Paula Scher, Stefan Sagmeister, Tim Brown, and Bruce Mau, who collaborated at length with Berger on the project. The book examines, up-close, the ways in which designers approach problems, utilize unique tools and techniques, and ultimately arrive at solutions, and shows how non-designers can apply these principles in their daily lives.
Berger currently resides in Mount Kisco, New York, with his wife, editor/webmaster Laura E. Kelly.
The Best Business Stories of the Year (2001; Pantheon) (ISBN 978-0375725005)

Pierre Boulle

Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (modifier l’article 2016 chaussure de foot, comment ajouter mes sources ?).
Pierre Boulle, par le dessinateur Gabriel Worst, en 2012.
Œuvres principales
Compléments
Grand prix de la nouvelle (prix littéraire d’Évian 1953) Grand prix de la Société des gens de lettres (1976)
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Pierre Boulle, né le 20 février 1912 à Avignon et mort le 31 janvier 1994 à Paris 16e, est un écrivain français. Agent de la France libre en Asie du Sud-Est pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, il est l’auteur du Pont de la rivière Kwai (1952) et de La Planète des singes (1963).

Pierre Boulle est né à Avignon, le 20 février 1912. Son père, un avocat excentrique, écrit sur le théâtre dans un journal, avant d’épouser la fille du directeur de ce journal, Thérèse. Pierre a une grande complicité avec son père : tous deux adorent la littérature, les livres, la chasse et les jeux ; même la Première Guerre mondiale ne trouble pas son enfance. Boulle passe ainsi une enfance tranquille avec ses parents et deux sœurs, Suzanne et Madeleine. Vers la fin de la guerre, en 1918, il entre dans les petites classes au lycée d’Avignon.
Son père meurt d’une maladie du cœur en 1926 : le jeune Pierre, âgé de 14 ans, est malgré lui projeté dans le monde adulte. Son but désormais est de devenir ingénieur avec une formation (Supélec) pour aider sa mère. À 24 ans, Boulle se retrouve dans une plantation d’hévéas de Malaisie, à 50 kilomètres de Kuala Lumpur. Pendant trois ans, il travaille comme un forcené, loin de l’Europe. Son expérience servira de trame à son roman Le Sacrilège malais.
En 1941, Boulle est toujours en Asie du Sud-Est lorsque la Seconde Guerre mondiale fait rage, et la France est occupée. Il décide alors de rejoindre le mouvement gaulliste, dont un représentant, François Girot de Langlade, ancien planteur comme lui, se trouve dans la base militaire britannique de Singapour. Boulle devient officier de liaison (sous-lieutenant) du commandant Baron. Après un entraînement spécial et muni d’un faux passeport anglais, sous l’identité de Peter John Rule, il part en mission en Indochine contre les Japonais, alliés des Allemands, pour tenter de fomenter des révoltes, en faisant sauter les ponts. Cependant, dès son arrivée, en 1942, il est capturé par des militaires français fidèles à Vichy. Considéré comme un traître, il est condamné aux travaux forcés à perpétuité. Deux ans plus tard, il parvient à s’évader de Saïgon, et rejoint la Force 136 du SOE (un service spécial britannique), à Calcutta. Il contera ces aventures dans un livre peu connu, Aux Sources de la Rivière Kwaï.
Après la guerre, lorsqu’il retrouve sa patrie libérée, le général de Gaulle lui remet plusieurs médailles pour ses exploits. Aussitôt, il se cherche : que faire après avoir vécu tant d’aventures ? Un jour, sur un coup de tête, il décide de vendre tout ce qu’il possède, puis s’installe dans un petit hôtel à Paris pour écrire. «  Cette décision de devenir écrivain », dira-t-il plus tard, « je l’ai prise en une heure, une nuit d’insomnie où les lucioles dansaient ».
L’aventurier est désormais un écrivain célèbre. Il habite chez sa sœur Madeleine devenue veuve, et s’occupe comme un père de sa petite nièce Françoise, à laquelle il racontait tous ses romans avant de les écrire. Resté un célibataire endurci, Boulle écrit tous les jours ; de 1950 à 1992, il publie un livre presque chaque année, dont deux romans qui sont publiés dans le monde entier et sont considérés comme des classiques : un roman d’aventures publié en 1952, Le Pont de la rivière Kwai – en partie inspiré des souvenirs de Boulle lorsque celui-ci a vécu dans en Asie du Sud-Est avant et pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, ainsi que de témoignages qu’il a pu recueillir –, et un autre de science-fiction en 1963, La Planète des singes, le plus célèbre de ses romans, traduit dans plusieurs langues, et qui a notamment fait l’objet de nombreuses adaptations cinématographiques, dont la première en 1968, réalisée par Franklin J. Schaffner, avec Charlton Heston dans le rôle principal, et une autre en 2001, réalisée par Tim Burton, ainsi qu’une préquelle en 2011, intitulée La Planète des singes : Les Origines, réalisée par Rupert Wyatt, et sa suite en 2014, La Planète des singes : L’Affrontement, réalisée par Matt Reeves.
Pierre Boulle a vécu ainsi jusqu’à la fin de ses jours, partageant son temps entre Paris et une maison de campagne à Autry-le-Châtel dans le Loiret. À écrire des livres où il se plaisait par-dessus tout à construire la rencontre entre deux choses : « le simple et l’étrange ». Pierre Boulle décède le 30 janvier 1994. Son urne funéraire est placée dans la case 40 598 du columbarium du cimetière du Père-Lachaise. En novembre 2002, ses cendres ont été déposées dans le caveau familial au cimetière Saint-Véran à Avignon.
William Conrad, son premier roman, est publié en 1950. Boulle avait alors 38 ans et aucune formation littéraire, mais l’histoire d’agents secrets a une aura d’authenticité qui séduit la critique.
Deux de ses romans connaissent une notoriété mondiale, grâce à leurs adaptations cinématographiques : Le Pont de la rivière Kwaï et La Planète des singes, et à leur traduction en langue anglaise par Xan Fielding, ancien officier du Special Operations Executive pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale.
Le Pont de la rivière Kwaï obtient le prix Sainte-Beuve. Inspiré d’une période de la vie de Boulle, engagé dans les FFL, le roman et le film de 1957 du même nom, réalisé par David Lean, assurent la célébrité de l’aventurier.
Le photographe est adapté au cinéma par Jean-Claude Tramont sous le titre Le point de mire, en 1977.
En 1976, pour l’ensemble de son œuvre, Boulle reçoit le grand prix de la Société des gens de lettres robe sandro.
Boulle est, avec Jacques Spitz, René Barjavel et José Moselli, un des pionniers de la science-fiction française. Dans une histoire écrite en 1949, Une Nuit Interminable, publiée dans le recueil Contes de l’absurde (1953), Boulle joue avec les paradoxes temporels, à la manière d’un Barjavel dans Le Voyageur imprudent, faisant preuve d’un étonnant modernisme. Ce recueil est par ailleurs le premier recueil de nouvelles de science-fiction françaises. Dans Un métier de Seigneur, il montre après la guerre un lâche, qui démasqué par ses anciens compagnons d’armes de la Résistance, meurt en héros pour ne pas avouer sous la torture sa couardise passée.
Pierre Boulle est également l’un des auteurs français les plus traduits et les plus connus à l’étranger, plus particulièrement aux États-Unis, où ses romans connaissent un énorme succès, dopés par les adaptations cinématographiques du Pont de la rivière Kwaï et de La Planète des singes. Il est ainsi l’objet d’une étude littéraire, Pierre Boulle, écrite par Lucille Frackman Becker, parue chez Twayne Publishers et jamais traduite en français. Une autre étude, Pierre Boulle et son œuvre, écrite par Paulette Roy, est publiée en 1970 chez Julliard, à l’occasion de laquelle elle rencontre l’écrivain qui lui donne par lui-même de nombreux renseignements. Elle y présente ses œuvres et le situe avec de nombreux exemples dans la lignée de plusieurs auteurs pour la satire, la science, et tous les sujets les plus fréquents dans son œuvre.
Par exemple, dans la série télévisée dérivée d’X-Files, The Lone Gunmen : Au cœur du complot, dans l’épisode Planet of the Frohikes, on trouve le Boulle Behavioral Institute, en hommage à l’auteur. Par ailleurs, dans l’épisode 5 de la première saison de X-Files (Le Diable du New Jersey), un ranger s’appelle « Peter Boulle ».
La Planète des singes, considéré comme un classique de la science-fiction et le livre le plus important de l’écrivain, connaît un grand succès à sa sortie en 1963. Depuis 1968, le roman connaît huit adaptations cinématographiques américaines (dont la huitième, La Planète des Singes : L’Affrontement, sortie en 2014), deux séries télévisées en 1974 et 1975 et d’innombrables séries de bande dessinées.
Dans le roman, le professeur Antelle organise une mission à destination de l’étoile Bételgeuse. Accompagné du physicien Levain et du journaliste – et protagoniste – Ulysse Mérou, il découvre une planète semblable à la Terre, appelée Soror, et décide de l’explorer. C’est ainsi qu’ils découvrent avec horreur qu’elle est dominée par des primates chassant les hommes comme des bêtes sauvages…
Aucune des adaptations n’a été fidèle à la version de Boulle. Elles sont plutôt spectaculaires et « réalistes », alors que le roman est plutôt à prendre au second degré (les singes conduisent des avions, jouent au golf…) lancel sac à main 2016. En 1968, après le premier volet au cinéma, Boulle écrit un script sous le titre La Planète des hommes ; refusé par les studios, ce scénario manuscrit fait partie des collections de la Bibliothèque nationale de France depuis 2007. La saga des années 1970 met en avant les dangers de la guerre nucléaire, très en vogue à l’époque dans le cinéma américain. Trois Américains échouent sur la Terre du futur après avoir traversé le temps lors d’un voyage spatial. L’astronaute Taylor découvre alors que les singes intelligents ont pris le contrôle de la planète après une guerre qui a transformé les continents en déserts et jungles, et l’Homme en un être inférieur et muet…
Dans le film de 2001 réalisé par Tim Burton, une station spatiale s’écrase sur une planète inconnue. Des primates karen millen france 2016, utilisés pour le vol spatial habité, se rebellent contre les survivants humains pour ériger leur propre civilisation. Des siècles plus tard, Léo Davidson, un astronaute qui faisait partie de la station et qui a traversé le temps, se retrouve prisonnier des singes et tente de s’échapper…
Dans La Planète des singes : Les Origines de 2011, un laboratoire développe un remède contre la maladie d’Alzheimer en testant un rétrovirus sur des singes. Le virus, mortel pour l’Homme, décuple l’intelligence d’un chimpanzé qui mène alors ses semblables à la révolte…
Si l’on devait comparer les différentes adaptations, c’est la première version qui est la plus proche du roman, par le déroulement de l’histoire et sa présentation du comportement des singes (chasse au fusil, prise de photos avec les trophées humains, expériences en laboratoire…) vis-à-vis des hommes (qui y sont muets comme dans le roman). Ses seules trahisons à l’œuvre de Boulle provient du lieu de l’action, que le film de Burton rétablit, ainsi que la fin avec la Statue de la Liberté échouée, ce dont Boulle ne voulait pas ; il écrit d’ailleurs au producteur Arthur P. Jacobs pour exprimer son désaccord. Dans le livre original, l’action se passe sur une planète inconnue, et non sur la Terre. Et lorsque le héros rejoint la Terre à la fin du film ted baker robes 2016, c’est pour découvrir que les hommes ont subi un sort similaire à ceux de la planète explorée (comme dans le roman).
Cinq ans après la mort de Pierre Boulle, sa nièce, qu’il avait élevée comme sa propre fille, et son mari découvrent de nouveaux manuscrits inédits dans les archives de l’auteur. Presque illisibles, il a fallu repasser une à une les vingt mille pages découvertes pour les restaurer. À l’issue de ce fastidieux travail, un nouveau roman sort de l’oubli : L’Archéologue et le Mystère de Néfertiti, probablement écrit entre 1949 et 1951, et paru au Cherche-Midi en 2005, ainsi que des nouvelles inédites ou méconnues, réunies en un recueil : L’Enlèvement de l’Obélisque.
Si Pierre Boulle est célèbre pour ses romans, c’est pourtant dans ses nouvelles qu’il exprime le plus d’originalité et de force. Voici la liste des nouvelles qu’il a écrites, et les recueils dans lesquels on peut les trouver.
Pierre Boulle est par ailleurs l’auteur des préfaces des ouvrages suivants :
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Central High School (Louisville, Kentucky)

Coordinates: 38°15′00″N 85°46′13″W / 38 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor.25010°N 85.77020°W / 38.25010; -85.77020
Formally known as Louisville Central High School Magnet Career Academy, Central High School is a public high school in downtown Louisville, Kentucky, United States. (City/County pop. 760,000 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, Metro Area 1.5 Million)

Until 1956, Louisville Central High School was the only public high school in the city for African Americans. The United States Supreme Court struck down racial segregation in public schools in 1954 in the famous Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas case. In 1956, Louisville public schools desegregated. Central, however, has a long and distinguished history. According to encyclopedists Aubespin, Clay, and Hudson: “Central High School opened in October, 1873 at Sixth and Kentucky”(Two Centuries of Black Louisville). The school would have four other locations: Ninth and Magazine, Ninth and Chestnut, Eighth and Chestnut, and its current location of Eleventh and Chestnut Streets since 1952 ( Tilford-Weathers A History of Louisville Central High SchoolThe school was named Central Colored High School in 1892 and John Maxwell was its first principal. Specializing in preparing students for professional careers, Central offers many magnet programs. As an all-magnet school, it has no home district, instead it brings in students from throughout the Jefferson County Public School System.
Not only has Louisville Central’s 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012 football team become 3A champions, their basketball team won 2008’s regional basketball championship and was one of two schools in the county attending the sweet sixteen games. Their band, featuring the “Yellow Jacket Drumline”, “The Flag Girls” and the “Stingettes” majorette dance team, has become one of the most talented musical ensembles in the region; it is also the first in the county to incorporate majorettes.
Louisville Central High School and the rest of the Louisville school system played a part in both integration efforts and the Cold War. In 1957, as many around the world began to take notice of racial problems within the United States, the United States Information Agency produced promotional materials touting “The Louisville Story” as an example of peaceful integration.
In the 1950s, Central High School also won three national basketball high school championships. In 1983, Central High School won the WAVE-TV’s High Q Championship. In 2007, when Central won the 3A State Football Championship, Head Coach Ty Scroggins became the first African-American high school coach in Kentucky history to win a state football championship. On December 12, 2008, Central’s football team repeated the feat of winning the 3A State Championship, becoming the first Louisville public high school to do so in 44 years. In 2008, Central was listed by U.S 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet. News and World Report as one of America’s best high schools.
In 2009, the Central High School basketball team (which started 0-8) repeated as regional basketball champions and advanced to the sweet sixteen championship game against Holmes High School. Central also swept the boys’ and girls’ 2-A Track & Field Regional Championship titles.
In 2010 Central made history by beating the Belfry Pirates to win the 3A Conference Championship. This is there 3rd championship in four seasons.
In 2011 Central again made history by beating Phillip Haywood’s’ Belfry Pirates in the KHSAA 3A State Championship 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. This was their 4th Championship in five seasons.
In December 2012 for the 3rd consecutive year Central High School claimed the KHSAA 3A State Championship. They defeated the Belfry Pirates with a score of 12-6. This was their 5th championship in 6 seasons.
Central High School is located at 1130 W. Chestnut Street, and the principal is Mr. Raymond Green.
The Law and Government magnet is the only program like it in the JCPS school system. It is directed by Joe Gutmann. He worked as an Assistant Commonwealth attorney for more than 20 years before joining the Central staff. He has been at Central for 11 years as of the 2012-13 school year. The Law & Government Magnet has a signature partnership with the University of Louisville and Louisville Bar Association.
Until 2000, all high schools in Jefferson County were required to maintain a percentage of African-American students between 15 and 50%. In 2000, a group of black parents sued after their children were denied admission to Central High School. As a result, US District Judge John Heyburn II struck down the use of race-conscious school assignment procedures for Jefferson County magnet and traditional schools such as Central.

Schlammspringer

Afrikanischer Schlammspringer (Periophthalmus barbarus)
Schlammspringer (Periophthalmus) sind eine amphibisch lebende Gattung von Fischen aus der Familie der Gobionellidae innerhalb der Grundelartigen (Gobiiformes) Wellensteyn Sale 2016. Der wissenschaftliche Name Periophthalmus kommt aus dem Griechischen und wurde wegen der hoch angesetzten Augen vergeben, die eine gute Rundumsicht ermöglichen („peri“ = umher, nach allen Seiten; „ophthalmos“ = Auge).

Schlammspringer besiedeln die Mangrovenwälder und das Brackwasser von Ostafrika über Nordaustralien bis Samoa. Weiter nördlich kommen sie bis Korea und Japan vor. Eine Art

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, Periophthalmus barbarus, lebt an den Küsten Westafrikas 2016 fußball trikots.
Schlammspringer werden 5 bis 16,5 cm lang. Sie besitzen einen langgestreckten Körper, der hinten seitlich leicht abgeflacht ist, und hochstehende Augen, die sich deutlich über das Kopfprofil erheben, sowie zwei deutlich getrennte Rückenflossen. Die Augen stehen nah beieinander und verfügen über ein gefaltetes unteres Augenlid, mit dem das Auge regelmäßig befeuchtet und abgewischt werden kann. Mit ihren an einem langen muskulösen Lobus sitzenden Brustflossen können sie sich hüpfend an Land fortbewegen. Die Bauchflossen können durch eine Membran zwischen den fünften Flossenstrahlen miteinander verbunden oder vollständig getrennt sein Discount Puma Fußballschuhe mit hoher Qualität. Die Schwanzflosse ist unsymmetrisch und besitzt verdickte untere Flossenstrahlen. Am Kopf sind keine Sinneskanäle sichtbar. Das Maul steht horizontal und verfügt über eine Zahnreihe in jedem Kiefer. Schlammspringer sind von kleinen Cycloidschuppen oder leicht ctenoiden Schuppen bedeckt.
Die Schlammspringer sind amphibisch lebende Fische und verbringen die meiste Zeit außerhalb des Wassers. Als einzige Vertreter der Schlammspringerverwandten besiedeln die Periophthalmus-Arten auch höher gelegene Küstenabschnitte mit festem Schlammboden, weichen fast „wasserscheu“ bei einlaufender Flut zurück und erklettern dabei sogar die Wurzeln der Mangroven. Sie ernähren sich mehr carnivor als ihre Verwandten, die vorwiegend pflanzlichen Aufwuchs fressen, und erbeuten Wirbellose, vor allem Insekten und kleine Krebstiere. Schlammspringer graben verzweigte Gänge in den Boden, in die sie sich bei Gefahr zurückziehen und wo sie sich auch fortpflanzen.
Es gibt 18 Arten:
Drei weitere, früher dieser Gattung zugeordnete Arten unterscheiden sich vor allem durch den Besitz von zwei Kieferzahnreihen und werden inzwischen unter dem Gattungsnamen Periophthalmodon (Bleeker, 1874) geführt: