Oliver Tambo

Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 – 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and revolutionary who served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1967 to 1991.

Oliver Reginald Tambo (fondly known as O. R.) was born on 27 October 1917, his father was Mzimeni and his mother was called Julia. He was born in the village of Nkantolo in Bizana in eastern Pondoland in what is now Eastern Cape. He attended a school at Holy Cross Mission School, and then transferred to St. Peters in Johannesburg. Tambo matriculated in 1938 as one of the top students. After this Tambo qualified to do his university degree at the University of Fort Hare. In 1940 he, along with several others including Nelson Mandela, was expelled from Fort Hare University for participating in a student strike. In 1942 Tambo returned to his former high school in Johannesburg to teach science and mathematics. Tambo, along with Mandela and Walter Sisulu, were the founding members of the ANC Youth League in 1943, becoming its first National Secretary and later a member of the National Executive in 1948. The youth league proposed a change in tactics of the anti-apartheid movement. Previously the ANC had sought to further its cause by actions such as petitions and demonstrations roger vivier outlet; the Youth League felt these actions were insufficient to achieve the group’s goals and proposed their own ‘Programme of Action’. This programme advocated tactics such as boycotts, civil disobedience, strikes and non-collaboration.
In 1955, Tambo became Secretary General of the ANC after Walter Sisulu was banned by the South African government under the Suppression of Communism Act. In 1958 he became Deputy President of the ANC and in 1959 was served with a five-year banning order by the government.
In response, Tambo was sent abroad by the ANC to mobilise opposition to apartheid. He settled with his family in Muswell Hill, north London, where he lived until 1990. He was involved in the formation of the South African Democratic Front. In 1967, Tambo became Acting President of the ANC, following the death of Chief Albert Lutuli.
The post-Apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission identified Tambo as the person who gave final approval for the 1983 Church Street bombing, which resulted in the death of 17 people and injuries to 197. In a 1985 interview, Tambo was quoted as saying, “In the past, we were saying the ANC will not deliberately take innocent life. But now, looking at what is happening in South Africa, it is difficult to say civilians are not going to die.”
In 1985 he was re-elected President of the ANC. He returned to South Africa on 13 December 1990 after over 30 years in exile, and was elected National Chairperson of the ANC in July of the same year. Tambo died aged 75 due to complications from a stroke on 24 April 1993.
The strong fight against apartheid brought Tambo to strike up a series of intense international relationships. In 1977 Tambo signed the first solidarity agreement between ANC and a Municipality: The Italian town of Reggio Emilia was the first city in the world to sign a pact of solidarity. This was the beginning of a long understanding and that meant for Italy to put an effort into concrete actions to support the right of southern African people’s self-determination: one of these actions was the organisation of solidarity ships. The first one, called “Amanda”, departed from Genova in 1980. It was Tambo himself to ask Reggio Emilia to coin Isitwalandwe Medals, the greatest ANC’s honour.
During his early years with the ANC Oliver Tambo was directly responsible for organizing active guerilla units. Along with his cohorts Nelson Mandela, Joe Slovo, and Walter Sisulu; Tambo directed and facilitated several attacks against unarmed civilians. Of which one of the most notable was the Church Street bombing on 20 May 1983, which resulted in the death of 19 civilians and the wounding of a further 217. In submissions to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in 1997 and 1998, the ANC revealed that the attack was orchestrated by a special operations unit of the ANC’s Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), commanded by Aboobaker Ismail. Such units had been authorised by Oliver Tambo, the ANC President, in 1979. At the time of the attack longchamp bags outlet, they reported to Joe Slovo as chief of staff, and the Church Street attack was authorised by Tambo.
The ANC’s submission said that the bombing was in response to a South African cross-border raid into Lesotho in December 1982 which killed 42 ANC supporters and civilians, and the assassination of Ruth First, an ANC activist and wife of Joe Slovo, in Maputo, Mozambique. It claimed that 11 of the casualties were SAAF personnel and hence a military target. The legal representative of some of the victims argued that as administrative staff including telephonists and typists they could not accept that they were a legitimate military target.
Ten MK operatives including Aboobaker Ismail applied for amnesty for this and other bombings. The applications were opposed on various grounds, including that it was a terrorist attack disproportionate to the political motive. The TRC found that the number of civilians versus military personnel killed was unclear. South African Police statistics indicated that 7 members of the SAAF were killed. The commission found that at least 84 of the injured were SAAF members or employees. Amnesty was granted by the TRC
Tambo suffered a stroke in 1993 and died at the age of 75. Tambo died only months before the 1994 general election in which Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa. Nelson Mandela, Thabo Mbeki and Walter Sisulu attended the funeral. Tambo was buried in Benoni, Johannesburg.
In 2004, he was voted number 31 in the SABC3’s Great South Africans,[citation needed] scoring lower than H. F. Verwoerd, before the SABC decided to cancel the final rounds of voting. The decision to cancel the results was largely informed by the fact that the majority of black South Africans did not participate in the voting, as SABC 3 caters predominantly for English speakers Karen Millen Outlet UK 2016.
In late 2005, ANC politicians announced plans to rename Johannesburg International Airport after him. The proposal was accepted and the renaming ceremony occurred on 27 October 2006. The ANC-dominated government had previously renamed Jan Smuts Airport as Johannesburg International Airport in 1994 on the grounds that South African airports should not be named after political figures.
There is also a bust of him in Albert Road Recreation Ground, Muswell Hill outside Alexandra Park School. In June 2013, the city of Reggio Emilia (Italy) celebrated Tambo with the creation of Park dedicated to the President of African National Congress.
Tambo’s grave was declared a National Heritage site when he died but lost this status when his wife, Adelaide Tambo died and was buried alongside him. However their grave was re-declared as a National Heritage site in October 2012 Ted Baker Ireland 2016.

Great barracuda

Sphyraena barracuda Walbaum, 1792
The great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda) also known as the giant barracuda, is a species of barracuda found in subtropical oceans around the world. It often grows to over 6 feet (1 ted baker dresses.8 m) long and is a type of ray-finned fish Green toothpaste dispenser.

Great barracudas are large fish. Mature specimens are usually around 60–100 cm (24–39 in) in length and weigh 2.5–9.0 kg (5.5–19.8 lb). Exceptionally large specimens can exceed 1.5 m (4.9 ft) and weigh over 23 kg (51 lb). The record-sized specimen caught on rod-and-reel weighed 46.72 kg (103.0 lb) and measured 1.7 m (5.6 ft), while an even bigger specimen measured 2 m (6.6 ft) and weighed 50 kg (110 lb). Barracudas are elongated fish with powerful jaws. The lower jaw of the large mouth juts out beyond the upper

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. Barracudas possess strong, fang-like teeth that are unequal in size and set in sockets in the jaws and on the roof of the mouth. The head is quite large and is pointed and pike-like in appearance. The gill covers do not have spines and are covered with small scales. The two dorsal fins are widely separated, with the first having five spines and the second having one spine and 9 soft rays. The second dorsal fin equals the anal fin in size and is situated more or less above it. The lateral line is prominent and extends straight from head to tail. The spinous dorsal fin is situated above the pelvis. The hind end of the caudal fin is forked or concave, and it is set at the end of a stout peduncle. The pectoral fins are placed low down on the sides. The barracuda has a large swim bladder.
In general, the barracuda’s coloration is dark green or a blue type coloration or grey above chalky-white below. Sometimes, a row of darker cross-bars or black spots occurs on each side. The fins may be yellowish or dark.
The great barracuda is found in subtropical parts of the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Barracudas appear in open seas. They are voracious predators and hunt using a classic example of lie-in-wait or ambush. They rely on surprise and short bursts of speed (up to 27 mph (43 km/h) to overrun their prey, sacrificing maneuverability. Barracudas are more or less solitary in their habits. Young and half-grown fish frequently congregate in shoals. Their diets are composed almost totally of fish of all kinds. Large barracudas, when gorged, may attempt to herd a school of prey fish in shallow water where they guard over them until they are ready for another hunt.
Like sharks, some species of barracuda are reputed to be dangerous to swimmers. They are scavengers, and may mistake snorkelers for large predators, following them in hopes of eating the remains of their prey. Swimmers have been reported being bitten by barracuda, but such incidents are rare and possibly caused by poor visibility. Barracuda generally avoid muddy shallows, so attacks in surf are more likely to be by small sharks. Barracudas may mistake things that glint and shine for prey. An incident of a barracuda jumping out of water and injuring a kayaker has been reported, but a marine biologist at the University of Florida said the type of wound appeared to have rather been caused by a houndfish.
Handfeeding or touching large barracuda in general is to be avoided. Spearfishing around barracudas can also be dangerous, as they are quite capable of ripping a chunk from a wounded fish thrashing on a spear mulberry bags sale.
Diamond rings and other shiny objects have been known to catch their attention and resemble prey to them. Caution should be taken when swimming near mangrove coastlines by covering or removing such items.
While barracudas display a disconcerting habit of curiously following divers and swimmers, attacks on humans are rare. Oftentimes, an attack consists of a single strike in which the fish attempts to steal prey from a spear, or else mistakes a shiny object for a fish. While serious, attacks are almost never lethal, bites can result in lacerations and the loss of some tissue.

Gare d’Évian-les-Bains

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Rhône-Alpes
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Haute-Savoie
La gare d’Évian-les-Bains est une gare ferroviaire française de la ligne de Longeray-Léaz au Bouveret, située à proximité du centre de la ville d’Évian-les-Bains dans le département de la Haute-Savoie, en région Rhône-Alpes.
C’est une gare de la Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF) desservie par des TGV pendant la saison d’hiver et par des trains TER Rhône-Alpes toute l’année. Elle est ouverte au service Fret SNCF.

Établie à 411 mètres d’altitude euro de foot 2016 outlet, la gare d’Évian-les-Bains est située au point kilométrique (PK) 211 adidas soccer jerseys 2016 outlet,366 de la ligne de Longeray-Léaz au Bouveret, entre les gares de Thonon-les-Bains (ouverte) et de Les Bains d’Évian (fermée). Elle est devenue une gare terminus depuis l’arrêt de l’exploitation du tronçon d’Évian-les-Bains à la frontière franco-suisse.
Projetée depuis longue date, la rénovation de la grande halle des voyageurs de la gare d’Evian a été achevée fin 2010. Ces travaux ont été financés par RFF, la Région Rhône-Alpes et la Ville d’Évian-les-Bains. Ce chantier a été également l’occasion pour RFF de renouveler voie et ballast sur des portions de voies au niveau de la gare. Ces travaux concernaient la rénovation de la marquise au titre du patrimoine régional remarquable.
Gare SNCF pas cher maillots de foot, elle dispose d’un bâtiment voyageurs nike soccer jerseys 2016 outlet, avec guichet, ouvert tous les jours. Elle est équipée d’automates pour l’achat de titres de transport. Des équipements, aménagements et services sont à la disposition des personnes à la mobilité réduite.
Évian-les-Bains est desservie par les trains TER Rhône-Alpes (lignes d’Évian-les-Bains à Lyon-Part-Dieu et à Genève-Eaux-Vives.) Pour les étudiants, un train direct Evian-les-Bains – Thonon-les-Bains – Annemasse – La-Roche-sur-Foron – Annecy – Rumilly – Aix-les-Bains – Chambéry – Montmélian – Pontcharra – Grenoble-Universités-Gières – Grenoble circule les dimanches soirs avec retour les vendredis soirs.
La desserte régionale est complétée par une desserte TGV depuis Paris-Gare-de-Lyon permettant de rejoindre les stations de sports d’hiver environnantes. Ils circulent le week-end en direction d’Evian les vendredi, samedi et dimanche et en direction de Paris le samedi et le dimanche .
Un parc pour les vélos et un parking pour les véhicules y sont aménagés. La gare est desservie par des bus urbains et des autocars du réseau des Lignes Interurbaines de Haute-Savoie (LIHSA). À proximité on trouve la gare de départ du funiculaire d’Évian-les-Bains et l’embarcadère des bateaux de la CGN dont ceux du service régulier pour Lausanne-Ouchy.
Évian-les-Bains est une gare de Fret SNCF qui dispose d’un service pour le transport par « train massif » en gare et un accord avec Danone pour un service en wagon isolé. Elle dispose d’une grue de 6 tonnes.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Conquête romaine de la péninsule Ibérique

Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (modifier l’article, comment ajouter mes sources ?).
Le Temple romain d’Évora situé au Portugal.
Portugal
Espagne
Comté de Portugal
Aragon • Castille • León • Navarre
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On désigne par Conquête romaine de la péninsule Ibérique la période comprise entre le débarquement des Romains à Ampurias près de Gérone en -218 et la fin de cette conquête par Auguste en -19. Cette occupation débouchera sur une romanisation de l’Hispanie sur le plan culturel, une fois les provinces soumises.

Bien avant le début de la première guerre punique, entre le VIIIe et le VIIe siècle av. J.-C., les Phéniciens (puis plus tard les Carthaginois) ont fait acte de présence dans le sud de la péninsule Ibérique et sur la côte est, au sud de l’Èbre. Le long de cette frange côtière, ils ont installé un grand nombre d’établissements commerciaux exportant dans toute la Méditerranée minéraux et autres ressources naturelles de l’Ibérie préromaine. Ces établissements, qui consistaient en quelques entrepôts et embarcadères, permettaient non seulement l’exportation de produits mais aussi l’importation dans la péninsule de produits élaborés dans la partie orientale de la Méditerranée, ce qui entraîna l’adoption, par certaines des cultures autochtones, de coutumes orientales.
Toujours au VIIe siècle av. J.-C., les Grecs établissent leurs premières colonies sur la côte nord de la péninsule méditerranéenne depuis Massilia (Marseille): ils fondent les cités d’Emporion (Empúries en Catalan ou Ampurias) ou Rhodes (Rosas), bien qu’ils aient aussi disséminé des établissements commerciaux sur tout le littoral, sans qu’il y ait eu par la suite installation de population. Une partie du trafic commercial grec, sous embargo, était transporté par les phéniciens, qui commerçaient dans la péninsule avec des articles provenant et à destination de la Grèce.
En tant que puissance commerciale en Méditerranée occidentale, Carthage étendait ses intérêts jusqu’à la Sicile et le sud de l’Italie, ce qui provoqua, très vite, une réaction de la toute jeune puissance romaine. Finalement, ce conflit d’intérêts purement économique (et non territorial, étant donné que Carthage ne montrait aucune prétention d’envahisseur) provoqua ce qu’on appelle les Guerres Puniques: la première d’entre elles se conclura par un armistice fragile et une animosité croissante entre les deux peuples, animosité qui conduira à la Deuxième guerre punique; celle-ci se conclura douze ans plus tard par l’occupation romaine du sud et de l’est de la péninsule. Plus tard, Carthage aura à souffrir la défaite décisive de Zama avec laquelle elle disparaît définitivement des livres d’histoire.
Bien que s’étant imposé sur sa rivale en Méditerranée, il faudra encore deux ans à Rome pour dominer complètement la Péninsule Ibérique, s’attirant la haine de la quasi-totalité des peuples de l’intérieur du fait de sa politique expansionniste. Les abus dont ces peuples eurent à souffrir dès le début sont certainement en grande partie responsables du fort sentiment anti-romain de ces nations. Après ces années de guerres cruelles, les peuples autochtones d’Hispanie furent finalement écrasés par le rouleau compresseur militaire et culturel romain, finissant par disparaître giuseppe zanotti sneakers, en laissant tout de même le souvenir indélébile d’une résistance féroce face à un ennemi incomparablement supérieur.
Après la première guerre punique, la descendance carthaginoise d’Amilcar Barca entreprend de soumettre la péninsule, soumission qui sera effective sur une grande partie du territoire, et notamment sur toute la partie est et sud. Carthage parviendra à ce succès par le biais d’alliances, de tributs, de mariages ou simplement de la force.
Selon certains historiens, tel que l’archéologue Adolf Schulten, l’installation des carthaginois au sud-est de l’Espagne et la fondation de la ville de Qart Hadasht, actuelle Cartagène, par Hasdrubal en -227, avait pour but principal le contrôle de la richesse générée par les mines d’argent de la région.
Le général Hasdrubal le Beau fonde la cité de Qart Hadasht – sur les ruines d’une cité primitive de Tartessos nommée Mastia, selon certains historiens. La cité sera entourée de remparts et urbanisée, selon Polybe; Hasdrubal fait édifier un château sur un tertre de la cité. Carthagène se convertit en base des opérations militaires des carthaginois en Ibérie.
D’autre part, outre les énormes ressources minérales d’Ibérie, la péninsule fournit à Carthage d’importants contingents de troupes, aussi bien des mercenaires que des troupes mobilisables qui iront affronter Rome, et qui réaffirmeront son autorité sur le nord de l’Afrique, ce que les romains jugeront une raison suffisante pour envahir l’Hispanie. Parmi ces troupes, provenant des divers tribus peuplant la péninsule, celles des ilergetes et les légendaires Frondeurs des Baléares se distinguaient particulièrement.
À l’origine de la deuxième guerre punique, il y a la dispute pour s’emparer du pouvoir de Sagunto, villé côtière hellenisée et alliée de Rome. Après de fortes tensions entre les membres du gouvernement de la cité, tensions qui se concluent par l’assassinat des partisans de Carthage, Hannibal Barca débarque à Sagunto en -218; la ville demande en vain l’aide de Rome. Après un long siège et de violentes batailles, durant lesquels Hannibal est blessé, l’armée carthaginoise s’empare de la cité, ou plutôt de ce qu’il en reste après sa destruction du fait des combats mais aussi des habitants eux-mêmes. Nombre d’entre eux préfèrent se suicider plutôt que de se soumettre ou d’être réduit en esclavage par Carthage.
La guerre se poursuit avec l’expédition d’Hannibal sur la péninsule italienne. C’est ce moment que choisit Rome pour pénétrer dans la péninsule ibérique. Le motif de cette invasion est avant tout l’impérieuse nécessité de couper l’approvisionnement, provenant de Carthage et d’Hispanie, des troupes d’Hannibal qui cause tant de dégâts dans la péninsule italienne.
La conquête romaine de la péninsule a donc lieu en marge de la Deuxième guerre punique (-218/-201) lorsque Rome décide de prendre Carthage à revers en s’emparant des territoires sous son influence dans la région; ces territoires lui assurent en effet un soutien en hommes et en vivres. Le Sénat romain y envoie donc les légions romaines sous le commandement du consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus et de son frère Publius Cornelius Scipio. Il cherche par ce moyen à affaiblir les forces carthaginoises en éloignant leurs troupes de la péninsule italienne.
Gnaeus Scipion débarque le premier à Ampurias avec comme première mission de trouver des alliés parmi les ibères. Il parvient à signer quelques traités d’alliance avec des tribus ibères de la zone côtière, celles-ci restent néanmoins minoritaires. On sait par exemple que la tribu des Ilergetes, une des plus importantes au nord de l’Èbre, était alliée des carthaginois.
Pendant ce temps, son frère se dévie vers Massilia pour trouver des soutiens et couper l’avance carthaginoise.
Gnaeus Scipion parvient à soumettre par le biais de traités et par la force, la zone côtière au nord de l’Èbre, incluant la ville de Tarraco (ancien nom de Tarragone). La cité est désignée comme base d’opérations pour gérer la conquête (même si certains évoquent le site de Gérone ou celui de Barcelone alors réduit à une bourgade nommée Barcino). Cette cité-capitale développe tous les attributs d’une possible résidence impériale, avec des thermes, un cirque, un port et des fortifications.
Le premier combat important entre romains et carthaginois a lieu à Cissa (218 av. J.-C.) près de Tarraco, encore que certains historiens semblent évoquer Guissona, dans l’actuelle province de Lérida. Les carthaginois, sous le commandement de Hannon furent défaits par les forces romaines sous le commandement de ce même Gnaeus Scipion. Le caudillo des Ilergetes, Indíbil, allié des carthaginois aurait été capturé à cette occasion

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. Alors que la victoire de Gnaeus Scipion semblait acquise, Hasdrubal Barca arrive en renfort, dispersant les romains sans toutefois parvenir à les battre.
Chacun rejoint ses bases – les carthaginois à Cartago Nova (actuelle Carthagène) et les romains à Tarraco – avant que les troupes de Gnaeus Scipion ne viennent à bout d’Hasdrubal Barca à l’embouchure de l’Èbre en -217. Des renforts menés par Publius Cornelius Scipio (frère du premier) débarquent d’Italie peu après, permettant l’avancée romaine en direction de Sagonte.
On attribue à Gnaeus et à Publius la fortification de Tarraco et l’établissement d’un port militaire. La muraille de la cité fut probablement construite sur l’ancienne muraille cyclopique: on peut en effet y observer un travail de la pierre typiquement ibérique.
Toujours en 216 av. J.-C., on trouve des témoignages de combats, sans grandes conséquences pour Rome, opposant Gnaeus et Publius aux Ibères, tribus vivant au sud de l’Èbre. L’année suivante les carthaginois reçoivent des renforts menés par Himilcon, initiant de nouveaux combats à l’embouchure de l’Èbre maillots de foot vente, selon toute vraisemblance, près de Amposta ou de Sant Carles de la Ràpita, lors de ce qui reste connu sous le nom de bataille de Dertosa. Les romains en sortent vainqueurs.
La rébellion de Syphax, roi de Numidie allié de Rome, en -214, oblige Hasdrubal Barca à retourner en Afrique avec ses meilleurs troupes laissant la voie libre aux romains. Il y obtient le soutien de Gaïa, autre roi numide, seigneur de la région de Constantine. Avec son aide et celle de son fils Massinissa, il vient à bout de Syphax. Il revient dans la péninsule en 211 av.J.-C. accompagné de Massinissa et de ses guerriers numides.
Entre -214 et -211, Gnaeus et Publius retournent dans la région de l’Èbre. On sait qu’en 211 av. J.-C. les frères Scipion incluaient dans leur troupe un fort contingent de mercenaires celtibères. Ceux-ci intervenaient fréquemment comme soldats de fortune.
Les forces carthaginoises se structurent en trois armées, commandées respectivement par les frères Barca, Hasdrubal et Magon) et par un autre Hasdrubal, fils du commandant carthaginois Hannibal Gisco mort lors de la première guerre punique.
En face, les romains s’organisent en trois groupes, commandés par Gnaeus, Publius et Titus Fonteius.
Hasdrubal Gisco et Magon Barca, soutenus par Massinissa, viennent à bout de Publius Scipion qu’ils tuent lors de la bataille du Bétis. En -211, Gnaeus Scipion assiste en plein combat à la désertion des mercenaires celtibères — Hasdrubal Barca leur ayant offert une somme supérieure à celle offerte par Rome — ce qui l’oblige à se retirer. Il meurt durant cette retraite, laissant les carthaginois à même de traverser l’Èbre. Cela sera rendu impossible grâce à l’intervention de Gaius Marcius Septimus, élu général par les troupes. Malgré le retour d’Indíbil au côté des carthaginois, l’issue de la bataille reste incertain.
L’année suivante, une expédition dirigée par Caius Claudius Nero est organisée afin de capturer Hasdrubal Barca. Claudius trahit son camp et fuit dans le déshonneur. Le Sénat envoie alors une nouvelle armée sur l’Èbre dans le but de contenir l’avancée des troupes carthaginoises en direction de l’Italie. Le chef de cette nouvelle armée est le célèbre Scipion l’Africain, fils du général homonyme, mort au combat en -211. Scipion est accompagné du proconsul Marcus Silano (qui doit succéder à Claudius Néron) et du conseiller Gaius Laelius, chef d’escadre. À leur arrivée, les armées carthaginoises se trouvent réparties de la manière suivante : celle dirigée par Hasdrubal Barca près des sources du Tage ; celle d’Hannibal Gisco dans la région de la future Lusitanie, près de Lisbonne ; enfin l’armée de Magon est installée près du détroit de Gibraltar.
Scipion, feignant de négliger l’importance de la région de l’Èbre, attaque directement Cartago Nova par terre et par mer. La capitale punique dans la péninsule, dont les garnisons dirigées par un autre Magon, sont insuffisantes, est obligée de céder. Elle est occupée par les romains. Scipion retourne rapidement à Tarraco sans laisser à Hasdrubal le temps de rejoindre les lignes dégarnies sur l’Èbre.
Cette opération marque le début de la soumission d’une grande partie de l’Hispanie ultérieure. Scipion parvient à convaincre plusieurs caudillos ibériques, jusque là alliés de Carthage, tels qu’Edecan et Indíbil (dont les femmes et les enfants ont été pris en otage par Carthage), ainsi que Mandoni (ayant combattu Hasdrubal Barca).
Pendant l’hiver entre -209 et -208, Scipion avance vers le sud, se heurtant à l’armée d’Hasdrubal Barca (qui, elle se dirigeait vers le nord), près de Santo Tomé (Province de Jaén) lors de la bataille de Baecula. Scipion aura beau réclamer pour lui la victoire, celle-ci reste à confirmer ; en effet, Hasdrubal Barca poursuit son avancée vers le nord avec la quasi-totalité de ses troupes, parvenant au pied des Pyrénées. On sait qu’Hasdrubal parvient à traverser les Pyrénées en passant par le Pays basque, probablement dans le but de conclure une alliance avec les basques ; ce qui est sûr, c’est que ceux-ci ne disposaient pas de grands moyens de défense face aux carthaginois. Hasdrubal installe son campement au sud de la Gaule, pénétrant en Italie en 209 av. J.-C.. L’année suivante Magon transporte ses troupes vers les Baléares ; Hasdrubal Giscon se maintient en Lusitanie.
En -207, les carthaginois sont réorganisés : ils bénéficient de nouveaux renforts provenant d’Afrique et dirigés par Hannon. Cela leur permet de reprendre la majeure partie du sud de la péninsule. Après avoir soumis cette zone, ses troupes s’unissent à celles d’Hasdrubal Giscon. Magon retrouve la péninsule. Peu de temps après les forces d’Hannon et de Magon sont pourtant défaites par les romains menés par Marcus Silano. Hannon est capturé, Giscon et Magon se retirent vers les principales places-fortes en attendant de nouveaux renforts d’Afrique (-206) maillots de football 2016 sale. Après avoir recruté des contingents d’indigènes, ils affrontent à nouveau les romains dans la bataille d’Ilipa (dans l’actuelle région de l’Alcala) dans la province de Séville. Scipion remporte clairement cette bataille, obligeant la retraite de Magon et d’Hasdrubal vers Gadès. Scipion prend possession de tout le sud de la péninsule et fait route vers l’Afrique pour rencontrer le roi Syphax qui lui avait auparavant rendu visite en Hispanie.
Profitant d’une convalescence de Scipion, certaines unités de l’armée en profitent pour se mutiner, exigeant des salaires impayés ; les Ilergetes, menés par Indíbil, et les Ausetans, menés par Mandoni, saisissent à leur tour l’opportunité pour se rebeller contre les proconsuls L. Lentulo et L. Manlio. Scipion parvient à contenir la rébellion avant de mettre un point final à la révolte des Ibères: Mandoni est arrêté et exécuté (-205) tandis qu’Indíbil parvient à s’échapper.
Magon et Hasdrubal abandonnent Gades avec tous leurs navires et leurs troupes pour aller aider Hannibal, parvenu en Italie. Rome détient alors tout le sud de l’Hispanie depuis les Pyrénées jusqu’en Algarve, parallèlement à la côte. Dès lors, l’administration romaine prend le contrôle de la péninsule avec, au début, un caractère d’occupation militaire, avec pour objectif de maintenir l’ordre et d’exploiter les ressources naturelles des régions occupées, dorénavant partie intégrante du territoire contrôlé par la République.
Dès -197, la partie de la péninsule ibérique tombée sous la dépendance de Rome est divisée en deux provinces: l’Hispanie citérieure au nord (future Tarraconaise, avec Tarragone pour capitale), l’Hispanie ultérieure au sud avec Cordoba pour capitale. L’administration en incombe deux fois par an à deux préteurs même si, celle-ci n’était pas toujours effective.
Cette même année, la province Citérieure est le théâtre d’une rébellion des peuples ibères et ilergetes, que le proconsul Quintus Minucius ne contrôlera que difficilement. La province Ultérieure, après la rébellion des Turdétans, échappe au contrôle de Rome avec la mort de son gouverneur. Rome doit se résoudre à y envoyer le consul Caton l’Ancien qui trouve en arrivant une province Citérieure en rébellion, les forces romaines contrôlant à peine quelques cités fortifiées. Caton vient à bout des rebelles et reprend la province durant l’été de cette année. Il ne parvient pas à s’attirer les faveurs de la population et des Celtibères qui agissaient comme mercenaires payés par les Turdétans et dont l’aide lui serait précieuse. Après une démonstration de force, traversant le territoire celtibère avec les légions romaines, il les convainc de retourner chez eux. La soumission des indigènes n’est qu’apparente; la rumeur donnant Caton de retour en Italie, la rébellion est réactivée. Caton réplique fermement: il met fin au soulèvement et vend les prisonniers comme esclaves. Tous les indigènes de la province sont désarmés. Caton, de retour à Rome avec un énorme butin de guerre (plus de 11 000 kilos d’argent, 600 kilos d’or, 123 000 deniers et 540 000 pièces d’argent pris sur les peuples hispaniques pendant les batailles) est accueilli en triomphe.
Un autre proconsul d’Hispanie, Marcus Fulvius Nobilior combattra plus tard d’autres rébellions.
Débute alors la conquête de la Lusitanie, avec deux victoires notoires: en -189, celle obtenue par le proconsul Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus puis, en -185, celle obtenue par le préteur Caius Calpurnius Piso (celle-ci reste douteuse).
La conquête de la zone centrale, la région nommée Celtibérie, est lancée en -181 par Quinto Fabio Flacco. Il remporte des victoires contre les Celtibères et soumet quelques territoires. Néanmoins, la conquête fut principalement l’œuvre de Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (entre -179 et -178) qui conquiert trente cités et villages, parfois par le biais de pactes ou profitant de la rivalité entre Celtibères et Vascons vivant plus au nord; il semble qu’il ait conclu avec eux les alliances nécessaires pour faciliter la domination romaine dans la région de Celtibérie.
Certaines des cités ou des villages vascons avaient peut-être déjà été soumis à cette époque, mais une grande partie du pays vascons entre sous la domination romaine volontairement, par alliance. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus fonde sur la cité déjà existante d’Ilurcis, la nouvelle cité de Graccurris (probablement l’actuelle Alfaro dans la région de Rioja, ou Corella en Navarre) avec une structure romaine, où se seraient installés des groupes celtibères organisés en bandes errantes. Cette fondation a lieu en -179 même si la référence écrite est postérieure. IL semble que la fondation de cette cité ait pour but la civilisation de la zone celtibérique et la diffusion de la culture romaine.
Gracchus se maintient dans cette zone, qui coïncide pour l’essentiel avec la vallée de l’Èbre et qui durant plusieurs années sera l’objet de de conflits entre Celtibères et Vascons. On lui doit probablement la majorité des traités entre ces deux peuples ennemis. Ces pactes établissaient en général, pour les cités et les villages, un tribut à payer en argent ou en produits naturels. Chaque cité ou village devait fournir à l’armée un contingent d’hommes fixé à l’avance. Seule quelques cités conservent le droit d’émettre de la monnaie.
Les habitants des cités soumises par la force ne bénéficiaient quasiment jamais du statut de sujet tributaire; lorsqu’ils offraient une résistance et qu’ils étaient vaincus, ils étaient vendus comme esclaves. Lorsqu’ils se soumettaient avant la défaite totale, ils étaient admis comme hommes libres mais sans bénéficier du statut de citoyen romain.
Lorsque les cités se soumettaient librement, les habitants devenaient citoyens, la cité conservait son autonomie et, parfois même, était exemptée d’impôts. Les proconsuls (ou propréteurs selon les années et l’importance accordée à la province), qui gouvernaient les provinces, prennent l’habitude de s’enrichir sur le dos de la population. Les cadeaux forcés et les abus sont pratiques communes. Durant ses déplacements, le préteur ou proconsul, ainsi que les autres fonctionnaires, se font héberger gratuitement, quand ils ne réquisitionnent pas tout simplement. Les préteurs imposent la livraison de grains à bas prix pour ses besoins, celui de sa famille, de ses fonctionnaires, voire de ses soldats. Les plaintes sont si nombreuses que le Sénat romain, après avoir reçu une ambassade des provinces hispaniques émet des lois de contrôle (-171): les tributs ne peuvent plus être prélevés par réquisition militaire; le paiement en céréales sont admis mais les préteurs ne peuvent plus prélever plus du cinquième de la cueillette; il est interdit au préteur de fixer lui-même la valeur des grains; les demandes particulières se limitent au financement des fêtes populaires de Rome; la contribution à l’armée par des contingents d’hommes est maintenue. Malgré cela, les accusations de proconsuls qui avaient commis des abus étant transmises au Sénat par les préteurs de la cité, rares sont ceux qui furent jugés.
La Lusitanie est probablement la région de la péninsule qui résiste le plus longtemps à l’envahisseur romain. Depuis -155, le caudillo lusitanien Punique effectue d’importantes incursions dans la zone lusitanienne occupée par les romains, mettant fin à une période de paix de vingt ans obtenue par le préteur antérieur, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. Punique remporte une importante victoire face aux préteurs Marcus Manilius et Calpurnius, causant près de 6 000 morts.
Après la mort de Punique, Caisarus prend la relève de la lutte contre Rome, remportant de nouveau une bataille contre les romains en -153, s’emparant de leurs étendards, lesquels sont triomphalement montrés au reste des populations ibériques comme preuve de la vulnérabilité de Rome. C’est alors que les Vettons et les Celtibères se joignent à la résistance, provoquant une situation très précaire pour Rome en Hispanie. Lusitaniens, Vettons et Celtibères pillent les côtes méditerranéennes. Loin d’assurer leur position dans la péninsule, ils ont tendance à se déplacer vers le nord de l’Afrique.
Cette année-là, arrive en Hispanie les nouveaux consuls, Quintus Fulvius Nobilior et Lucius Mummius. L’urgence de la situation justifie que les deux consuls prennent leur fonction avec près de deux mois et demi d’avance.
Les Lusitaniens avançant en Afrique sont battus à Okile (actuelle Asilah au Maroc) par Mummius qui les force à accepter un traité de paix. De son côté, le consul Servius Sulpicius Galba soumet les Lusitaniens de la péninsule, en assassinant un grand nombre.
Nobilior est remplacé l’année suivante (en -152) par Marcus Claudius Marcellus qui avait déjà été proconsul en -168. Lui-même est remplacé en -150 par Lucullus qui se distinguera par sa cruauté et son infamie.
En -147, un nouveau leader lusitanien nommé Viriatus reprend la lutte contre Rome. Ayant échappé aux massacres de Servius Sulpicius Galba trois ans auparavant, puis parvenant à unir à nouveau les tribus lusitaniennes, cet ancien berger se lance dans une guérilla usante pour l’ennemi bien qu’il n’y ait jamais de bataille en terrain découvert. Il conduit de nombreuses incursions et atteint même les côtes autour de Murcie. Ses nombreuses victoires et les humiliations infligées aux romains lui vaudront de rester longtemps dans les mémoires hispaniques comme le symbole héroïque de la résistance sans trêve. Viriatus sera assassiné en -139 par ses propres lieutenants, très probablement subornés par Rome. Avec sa mort, disparaît aussi l’ultime résistance organisée des Lusitaniens; Rome peut poursuivre son avancée en Lusitanie comme en témoigne la Table d’Alcantara datée de -104.
Entre -138 et -137, le consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus organise une expédition vers la Gallaecia (correspondant à la Galice et au nord du Portugal).
Quasiment à la même époque, en -133, la cité celtibère de Numance, ultime bastion des Celtibères, est détruite. Ce fut là, le point culminant de la guerre entre Celtibères et Romains, entre -143 et -133; la cité celtibère tombe aux mains de Scipion Émilien après un long siège, la faim finissant par venir à bout de la résistance. Les chefs celtibères se suicident avec leur famille tandis que le reste de la population est vendue comme esclave. La cité est détruite.
Durant plus d’un siècle, Vascons et Celtibères se disputeront les riches terres de la vallée de l’Èbre. Il est probable que Calagurris la celtibère (actuelle Calahorra), soutenue par des alliances tribales, ait supporté le plus gros de cette lutte; côté Vascon, il devait exister une installation de moyenne importance de l’autre côté de l’Èbre, plus ou moins en face de Calagurris, bénéficiant également d’un appui des Vascons d’autres points. Ce qui est certain c’est que les Celtibères emportent la bataille et détruisent la cité vasconne, occupant les terres de l’autre rive.
Mais les Celtibères étaient les ennemis de Rome, alors que les Vascons étaient, pour des raisons stratégiques évidentes, leur allié. Lorsque la cité de Calagurris fut détruite par les Romains, elle fut repeuplée par des Vascons, venant probablement de la cité vasconne sur l’autre rive détruite par les Celtibères (qui avaient occupés leurs terres au nord de l’Èbre) mais aussi d’autres lieux.
Lorsque les Romains occupent les Baléares en -123, trois mille hispaniques parlant latin s’y installent; cela donne une idée du degré de pénétration de la culture romaine dans la péninsule en moins d’un siècle.
L’Hispanie cesse d’être le théâtre de disputes politiques et militaires pendant les deux dernières années de la République romaine, moment où Sertorius affronte le parti des aristocrates menés par Sylla en -83. La chute de Sertorius en Italie provoque son départ vers l’Hispanie où il poursuit sa guerre contre le gouvernement de Rome. Il y établit toute une administration gouvernementale avec Huesca (Osca) pour capitale. C’est finalement Pompée qui, après plusieurs tentatives d’incursion en Hispanie, met fin à l’aventure de Sertorius en maniant la ruse plutôt que la force. Le soutien de la péninsule à Pompée sera la cause des années après d’un nouveau conflit en Hispanie, entre ses partisans et ceux de Jules César; conflit dont César sortira vainqueur en -49.
L’invasion de l’Hispanie par Jules César s’inscrit dans sa lutte contre Pompée pour le pouvoir à Rome. Pompée s’était réfugié en Grèce en attendant. César tente d’éliminer les soutiens de Pompée en occident et de l’isoler du reste de l’Empire. Ses forces affrontent celles de Pompée lors de la Campagne de Lerida obtenant une victoire qui lui ouvre les portes de la péninsule. Pompée sera définitivement battu à Munda en -45. Un an plus tard, Jules César sera assassiné aux portes du Sénat de Rome. Auguste, son fils adoptif, sera nommé consul, après une brève lutte contre Marc Antoine, avant d’accumuler des pouvoirs qui conduiront finalement la République agonisante vers l’Empire.
Durant le gouvernement d’Auguste, Rome se voit contrainte de maintenir une lutte féroce contre les peuples cantabres et astures, peuples de guerriers qui offrent une résistance farouche à l’occupation romaine. L’empereur en personne doit se rendre à Segisma (actuelle Sasamón dans la région de Burgos) pour conduire les opérations. Rome adopte envers ces peuples une politique d’extermination qui mettra fin à cette culture pré-romaine. Ce combat met fin aux longues années de guerre civiles et guerres de conquête sur le territoire de la péninsule ibérique, inaugurant une longue période de stabilité politique et économique en Hispanie.
En -197, les Romains divisent l’Hispanie en deux provinces : l’Hispanie citérieure, donnant sur la Méditerranée, et l’Hispanie ultérieure, comprenant le Sud et tournée vers l’Océan. La conquête romaine de la péninsule Ibérique fut longue, pour plusieurs raisons :
La chronologie résumée est la suivante :
La conquête de la péninsule suit une pause pendant un siècle, car l’Orient constitue un champ de conquête beaucoup plus attractif que l’Hispanie, tandis que les populations hispaniques ont montré leur capacité de résistance. La partie nord-ouest de l’Hispanie reste donc insoumise.

Dick Vrij

Dick Vrij is a Dutch former professional mixed martial artist. He competed in the Heavyweight division

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A former bodybuilder and club bouncer, Vrij started training martial arts at the Chris Dolman gym. He had his debut to a worldwide audience when he wrestled a special match in Japanese pro wrestling promotion UWF Newborn, facing Yoshiaki Fujiwara in a losing effort. He would return to defeat Yoji Anjo and lose again to Fujiwara. When the promotion closed, Dolman and Vrij followed UWF member Akira Maeda to his Fighting Network RINGS promotion in 1990, becoming full time wrestlers for it karen millen sale. Vrij took part in RING’s first main event, wrestling Maeda himself.
Vrij competed both in pro wrestling and shoot matches, having the first of them at the event RINGS Mega Battle IV, where he knocked out Mitsuya Nagai with a palm strike. He would defeat him in a rematch in RINGS Holland, knocking Nagai several times before winning by knee strike. They faced again in a rubber match in RINGS Maelstrom 6, but an improved Nagai capitalized on Vrij’s lack of grappling skill and submitted him with a heel hook. Vrij would have another fight in Holland in 1997 against Pedro Palm, but the bout went to no contest due to Vrij landing an illegal kick while Palm was downed.
In February 1998, Vrij took on Ultimate Fighting Championship fighter Paul Varelans in a vale tudo rules match for his return to RINGS Holland. Dick fought in bad health and under heavy ephedrine medication for a foot injury gained in a wrestling match with Valentijn Overeem, but he did not back down from the event karen millen online. The subsequent match was controversial, as Dick was able to knock Varelans down in the first round and landed several unanswered punches michael kors cheap, but then the referee pushed Vrij apart and restarted the bout standing instead of stopping it altogether. At the second round, Vrij felt the effects of his health, and Varelans capitalized to land a right punch and knock him out, winning the match. Vrij bounced back from the loss at the next Holland event, defeating another UFC alumnus in the form of Zane Frazier.

Kang the Conqueror

Kang the Conqueror is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. In 2009, Kang was ranked as IGN’s 65th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time.

Kang first appears in Avengers #8 (Sep. 1964), and was created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby.
Nathaniel Richards, a scholar born in the 30th century, becomes fascinated with history and discovers the time travel technology created by Victor von Doom. Richards then travels back in time to ancient Egypt c. 2950 B.C., aboard a Sphinx-shaped timeship, to become the Pharaoh Rama-Tut, with intentions of claiming En Sabah Nur—the mutant destined to become Apocalypse—as his heir. Though briefly blinded in a crash, a radioactive herb restores his sight after frightening the Egyptians by firing his ray-gun.[clarification needed] Richards’ rule lasts for a time, until his defeat by time-displaced heroes from the 20th century, the Fantastic Four, who had traveled back in time (with some help from a time-traveling Doctor Strange and Khonshu). The Fantastic Four are placed under mind-control by Rama Tut’s Ultra-Diode Ray; he makes Susan Storm his Queen, puts Ben Grimm to work on the ship karen millen ireland outlet, plants Reed Richards as a lookout for his armies, and makes Johnny Storm his court jester. The four of them escape in the Sphinx, while Tut flees back into time, and an explosive device destroys the Sphinx. He eventually returns to rule in ancient Egypt, and encounters the time-traveling West Coast Avengers.
Embittered by this defeat, he travels forward to the 20th century and meets his ancestor Doctor Doom, adrift in space near Jupiter. He returns him to Earth. They suggest they might be the same being, but at different points in time, so will not attack the Fantastic Four together, as they claim if one is defeated, the other will be unable to exist. Richards then tries to return to the 31st century, but instead finds himself one thousand years further in the future due to an energy failure. This world is inhabited by warring factions that do not understand the technology created by their more advanced ancestors. Kang designs an armor based on Doom’s using 40th century technology, and again travels to the 20th century Cheongsam Dress, thus creating an alternate timeline: Earth-689. Calling himself the Scarlet Centurion, he manipulates the Avengers from this timeline — the original team — into apprehending all heroes and villains (following their first encounter with the Space Phantom). The Centurion transports the Avengers from Earth-616 to his timeline, hoping that they will defeat their Earth-689 equivalents, and can then be disposed of. They are able to force the Centurion from this timeline, after which Uatu the Watcher reveals that he is Kang. He battles the Squadron Supreme on an alternate Earth. The Centurion returns to his home century, and reinvents himself as Kang the Conqueror. Using the resources at his disposal he establishes an empire. But this world is dying, and so he decides to take over an earlier, more fertile Earth.
On Kang’s first foray into the 20th century where he expects to meet Doctor Doom, he attempts to conquer this time period and meets the superhero team the Avengers, he reveals how he returned and battles them. He traps the Avengers in his ship using a tractor beam, although Wasp and Rick Jones escape. He says the world has 24 hours to surrender to him. The Teen Brigade pretends they want to help Kang, but drop an energy cylinder to delay him after they gain access to his ship. Thor is freed, and he then frees the other members. The Wasp gets Giant-Man a weapon that wrecks Kang’s battlesuit and his missiles. Kang releases radiation that beings from the year 4000 are immune to, but Thor uses his hammer to absorb the rays and send them back at Kang, which not even his immunity can stand, after which he is forced to escape to another time. Kang is furious and swears vengeance. He creates a Spider-Man robot while Iron Man is briefly away from the Avengers. The robot lures the Avengers to a temple with a nerve gas to weaken them by claiming the Masters of Evil have kidnapped Iron Man and taken him to the temple and battles them to a stalemate. However the real Spider-Man had found out about the robot with his spider-sense and destroys the robot after deactivating it during an aerial battle. The Avengers realize Kang was behind this.
Kang returns, attempting to win the hand of Princess Ravonna of a puppet kingdom, by demonstrating his power to her father by battling the Avengers, whom he kidnaps using a time machine he disguises as part of their mansion. The Scarlet Witch uses her power to break out of giant jars they are imprisoned in. She pulls a lever to free the others. However they are paralyzed by a device of Kang, though Quicksilver evades it with his speed. Captain America reveals himself to Kang outside the mansion, so he is sent to the future. The Avengers reform and attack Kang, who gives a signal to his army. His men attack the kingdom and finally get to the Avengers, who are defeated. Later after one of his commanders, Baltog, rebels when Kang refuses to execute Ravonna he frees the Avengers to fight with him. They get the support of a group of citizens and break into the armory. The rebellion succeeds, and Baltog is captured by Quicksilver. Kang then transports the Avengers back to their own time. However, Ravonna is mortally wounded by Baltrog, when she leaps in front of the blast meant for Kang, realizing she loved him. Baltrog is then executed, while Kang laments Ravonna. Kang was unable to revive her, so kept her body in stasis.
Later he came from the 25th century and after defeating and imprisoning Merlin, he attempted to take over King Arthur’s Court and change history by attacking the rest of the world. He defeated King Arthur and many of his knights, sending them into exile. But Uatu the Watcher sent the Human Torch and the Thing back in time. They battled his army, and the Torch released Merlin. After his army was turned against him by Merlin, Kang was forced to flee. The Watcher then sent the two heroes back to their own time. In an encounter with Thor while utilizing his Growing Man to test it, Kang’s disguised time travel vehicle is destroyed by Mjolnir as he attempts to get back to his own time period. Kang returns and enters into a wager with the cosmic entity Grandmaster in hopes of restoring life to Ravonna, and uses the Avengers as his pawns against the Grandmaster’s newly created champions, the Squadron Sinister. This first round ends in a stalemate thanks to the intervention of the Black Knight, as he assists Goliath in defeating his opponent when the Avengers were meant to defeat the Squadron on their own. In a second round, the Grandmaster transferred three Avengers (the Vision, the Black Panther and Yellowjacket) to Paris in 1941, while the Grandmaster summoned the Sub-Mariner, Captain America and the android Human Torch from that period as his unwitting pawns to battle the Avengers. When the Avengers won the battle, the Grandmaster returned the Torch, Sub-Mariner and Captain America to where they had been and returned the Avengers to Kang’s citadel. Since Kang won only one round of the game, he did not win the power of life and death to save Ravonna and defeat the Avengers, but had to choose one or the other, so he requested the power of death to kill the Avengers. Since the Black Knight was not a member of the Avengers, he was not vulnerable to Kang’s powers and was thus able to defeat him. The Grandmaster removed the power of death and revived the Avengers. Kang later has a brief encounter with the Hulk, whom he utilizes in a scheme to change Earth during World War I, as he is unable to enter 1917 due to a time-storm. Kang attempts to trick the Hulk into killing his own ancestor by stopping the Phantom Eagle destroying a cannon that was about to attack the Allies—and thus potentially negate the formation of the Avengers. The Hulk stops the Eagle, but he accidentally destroys the cannon himself, and when Kang tries to keep the Hulk in 1917, he is hurled into the ‘limbo between the millennium’.
Later Kang tried to invade the 23rd Century, the time period of Zarrko, and tries to capture the Avengers once more. Spider-Man and Iron Man are taken forward by Zarrko so he can get into Kang’s facility. Zarrko then sends back three devices which will reverse the natural state of humanity all over the World except for an American nuclear base, making it easy for him to steal weapons from there, with which he can defeat Kang and rule his time. This scheme is foiled by Spider-Man and the Human Torch. With the help of the Inhumans Spider-Man returns to the 23rd Century and defeats the two villains.
Several months later Kang reappears, seeking the Celestial Madonna for a mate, whom he believes is on Earth. The discovery that it is the Avenger Mantis leads to another confrontation with the Avengers. The Avengers are aided by a futuristic version of Rama-Tut, who had returned to ancient Egypt in his old age and ruled for ten years, and then placed himself in suspended animation to revive in the 20th Century. This Rama-Tut has abandoned his identity as Kang and seeks to counsel and change his younger, conquering self. While Kang is foiled in his quest for the Celestial Madonna, Rama-Tut is unable to prevent the accidental death of the Avenger the Swordsman. As Kang escapes, the Avenger Hawkeye chooses to pursue him (courtesy of Doom’s time-travel machine), which results in a final battle in the Old West in 1871. Aided by the futuristic Rama-Tut once more—who has evolved after a journey to Limbo and a study of time into Immortus—Hawkeye jack wolfskin jacket, Thor, and ally Moondragon confront Kang, with the help of the Two-Gun Kid. In trying to defeat Thor, Kang draws on an excessive amount of energy and destroys himself.
Years later the Hulk has an encounter in the future with Kang’s still-devoted minions, and the Beyonder plucks a living Kang from his timeline to participate on the villains’ side in the first of the Secret Wars. He was revealed as a possible descendant of Nathaniel Richards from the 31st Century of an alternate Earth. It was then revealed that while the original Kang was dead, his constant time-traveling had caused the creation of a number of other flawed “Kangs”, and so the three stable versions of the villain form a council to eliminate the others and stop a proliferation of still more of their number from Limbo. The first Kang to reach Limbo had been drawn there after his time-travel vehicle was destroyed by Thor. He found the fortress of Immortus and the remains of Immortus, causing him to take the devices used by the Lord of Limbo for viewing different time peroids. He realized his creation of alternate realities after he took Ravonna from the moment before her death to Limbo, and then saw he had created an alternate reality in which he was slain. He destroys thousands of Kangs from many realities, with two other cunning divergents who with him form the Council of Kangs, though he is really plotting to destroy them. When one of the divergents finds out more about the first Kang, he is destroyed. The Avengers are drawn into the conflict by Kang trying to use them to destroy another Kang, and they are all captured and held under a paralysis ray while Kang explains his history to them. However Hercules overloaded the system when he tried to use his great strength to break free, allowing the Avengers to escape. The other Kang is delayed by Ravonna, who tells him if he truly loves her he must not kill his other version, but despite his love for her he still goes after the other Kang. He is destroyed when he tries to fire a weapon at Kang that had been tampered with. Once again with the help of Immortus the Avengers triumph. Immortus reveals he was behind these events and caused the temporal difficulties that sent Kang into the 20th and 41st Century, along with faking his death. Now most of the Kangs have been destroyed, with only one “Prime” Kang remaining, who falls into nothingness in Limbo after being driven insane while trying to absorb the memories of the Kangs that were destroyed when Immortus tells him these make him Lord of Limbo. Immortus then sent the Avengers back to their own timeline.
Another Kang was later revealed to have survived, and is invited to join the Crosstime Kang Corps (or, the “Council of Cross-Time Kangs”), which consists of a group of various aliens posing as Kang, searching for a Celestial “Ultimate Weapon”. This version of Kang calls himself “Fred” (by his own admission a humorous nod to Fred Flintstone, with a prehistoric name being appropriate for a time-traveler) and has a brief encounter with the Avengers while trying to stop the female space-pirate Nebula from interfering with a timeline. The Prime Kang then attempts to manipulate the Avengers from a time vortex and later encounters the Fantastic Four in a bid to capture Mantis and use her to defeat a Celestial and defeat the other Kangs, while “Fred” is incinerated by a Nebula-possessed Human Torch during a later battle with the Fantastic Four in the timestream.
Immortus reappears and reveals in a battle with the Avengers West Coast that he desires to be master of all time and plans to use the Avenger the Scarlet Witch as a nexus in order to control time. Immortus’ plan is foiled when a group of beings called the Time Keepers—who charged Immortus with responsibility for the period of time from 3000 BC to AD 4000—appear and use him as the nexus point to stabilize the damage done to the timestream by his interference. Prime Kang then makes a brief appearance as an ally of Dr. Doom when the latter tries to steal the Infinity Gems.
The Prime Kang then appears and takes the android Avenger the Vision prisoner, and battles both the Avengers and a new foe—Terminatrix—who is revealed to be Kang’s old lover Ravonna. Kang is critically injured when he intercepts a blow from Thor’s hammer Mjolnir that was meant for Ravonna, who is distraught over his sacrifice and teleports away with him. Terminatrix then places Prime Kang in stasis to heal and assumes control of his empire. However, she finds the empire under attack by a chronal being called Alioth, and is forced to summon the Avengers to assist. Terminatrix also revives Kang prada bags, who assists the Avengers in defeating Alioth, but not before allowing the entity to kill the entire Crosstime Kang Corps.
A recovered Prime Kang later aids the Avengers and their companion Rick Jones against another scheme implemented by his future self, Immortus, who is now allied with the Time Keepers, Kang seeking to reject his destiny as Immortus. When Immortus betrays the Time Keepers they kill him, and are in turn killed by Kang, though not before resurrecting Immortus by “splitting him off” from Kang. This then allows Kang to be free of Immortus as he has now fulfilled his destiny of becoming Immortus without being trapped by it. After some months Prime Kang embarks on an ambitious scheme (the Kang War) to conquer the Earth, this time aided by a son, Marcus, who now uses the alias of the Scarlet Centurion. Kang first promises any who aid him on Earth a place in his new order, which puts Earth’s defenses and the Avengers under strain as they fight off villain after villain. Kang then takes control of Earth’s defense system, and after destroying the city of Washington and killing millions, forces a surrender. The Avengers continue to battle the forces of Kang’s new empire, and eventually he is defeated by Captain America in personal combat. Although imprisoned, Kang is freed by his son Marcus, who is revealed to be only one of a series of clones. Kang then reveals that he is aware of Marcus’ betrayal (Marcus fell in love with and aided the Avenger Warbird in defeating the Master of the World, thus indirectly aiding in his father’s defeat as control of the Master’s technology allowed the Avengers to defeat Kang) and kills him before retreating from Earth.
Some time later, the hero Iron Lad is revealed to be an adolescent version of Kang who learned of his future history when Kang tried to prevent a childhood hospitalization. Attempting to escape his destiny, the young Kang stole his future self’s advanced armor and travelled back to the past, forming the Young Avengers based on a security protocol acquired from the databanks of the now-dead Vision when he was unable to contact the now-disassembled Avengers to help him stop Kang. However, when his attempt to reject his destiny results in him killing Kang, the resulting destruction caused by the changes in history forces Iron Lad to return to his time and undo the damage by becoming Kang.
Kang established a small, quiet town called Timely in northern Illinois around 1910, as a private retreat from the daily stresses of the Empire, where he occasionally resides as mayor Victor Timely.[volume & issue needed] It was during one of his vacation times that he took an interest in a young visiting college graduate named Phineas Horton, providing Horton with some insights during their talks which led him to eventually create the original Human Torch.[volume & issue needed]
Kang came to assist the Guardians of the Galaxy when they barely halted the spread of the space-time tear referred to as the Fault. He informs them that Adam Warlock has become Magus.
Kang later returns to kidnap Eiman and Uriel, the twin children of Archangel and Ichisumi.
During the Age of Ultron storyline, Kang the Conqueror brings the Apocalypse Twins from concentration camps to his palace in AD 4145. They are then dispatched on a mission to murder Colonel America at the time when history was altered by Wolverine and the Invisible Woman. The Apocalypse Twins’ mission fails, but they succeed in killing that reality’s Havok and Rogue who became the first lives they ever took. As punishment for their failure, Kang the Conqueror sends the Twins back to the concentration camps.
Kang travels the multi-verse and recruits Stryfe, Earth-X Venom (May “Mayday” Parker), Doom 2099, Iron Man 2020, Ahab, Magistrate Braddock, and Abomination Deathlok to save the multi-verse and possibly restore the universes that have already been erased. He appears to the remaining members of the Avengers Unity Squad after Earth has been destroyed by a Celestial leaving only the mutants, offering to help them save Earth by projecting their minds back into their past selves so that they can defeat the Celestial that attacked Earth, but subsequently attempts to steal its power for himself, requiring Sunfire and Havok to put themselves at risk by absorbing some of his energy themselves so that they can force him to expend his stolen power.
Before the Inhuman king Black Bolt destroys the city of Attilan to release Terrigen Mist throughout the world, he sends his son Ahura away to be fostered by Kang. Black Bolt later travels here, and releases a small amount of Terrigen Mist to activate Ahura’s terrigenesis, which will reveal his Inhuman ability. While Ahura is going through the change, Black Bolt asks Kang to save Ahura from the coming end of all things, but at the price of Kang keeping Ahura in his care forever, even if they are to survive. Black Bolt agrees, and Kang takes Ahura away. In the final pages of the comic this takes place in, it is revealed that Kang will play a major role in The Uncanny Inhumans comic.
While taunting the Inhumans’ efforts to find Ahura, another Kang emerges under the alias of “Mister Gryphon,” the owner of the new Avengers Tower, claiming that Kang has become splintered into various alternate versions of himself as part of recent temporal disruptions. With this version of Kang confined to the present, he mounts a massive assault on the Avengers with the aid of Equinox – temporally replicated so that multiple future versions of him are assisting his present self – and the reprogrammed Vision, intending to use Mjolnir’s ability to travel in time to return to his era. Despite this, he is defeated when Iron Man manages to reboot Vision’s software, while Spider-Man is able to identify the earliest version of Equinox present and knock him out, leaving Kang to be defeated by the temporal paradox when Thor travels back from a few days in the future and strikes the present version of Mjolnir with the version she acquired in the future.
Kang has no superhuman abilities, but is an extraordinary genius, an expert historical scholar, a master physicist (specializing in time-travel), engineer, and technician. Courtesy of 40th century technology, he has mastered combat and tactics, and is thoroughly versed in the principles of time travel. Kang wears highly advanced battle armor that enhances his strength; is capable of energy, hologram and force-field projection, has a 30-day supply of air and food, and the ability to control other forms of technology. It is made from alloys found in the 40th century. Via his “time-ship,” Kang has access to technology from any century, and he once claimed his ship alone could destroy the Moon.[volume & issue needed] He is also far more resistant to radiation than humans from the present.
As Rama-Tut, he used an “ultra-diode” ray-gun that was able to sap the wills of human beings. At a high-frequency, it is able to weaken superhuman beings and prevent use of their super powers. They can be freed from its effects if the gun is fired at them a second time.
In the Spider-Ham reality, Kang the Conqueror is depicted as a kangaroo named Kangaroo the Conqueror.
In the X-Men/Star Trek crossover Second Contact, an alternate universe version of Kang disrupts a number of timelines, and is defeated by the combined effort of the mutant X-Men and the crew of the Enterprise-E. His timehooks — the means the two teams used to travel in time — later draw the X-Men into the Enterprise’s timeline when the hook the Enterprise used becomes exposed to verteron particles, creating a link to the other hook due to Nightcrawler being similarly infused with verteron particles when he teleports.[volume & issue needed]
In the Heroes Reborn universe created by Franklin Richards, Kang and his lover Mantis travelled to the modern era on Counter-Earth in order to battle the greatest heroes of all time, the recently formed Avengers. Kang wished to utterly defeat them as a token of love to Mantis.[volume & issue needed]
Kang’s assault on Avengers Island led to the capture of all the Avengers, with Kang taking Thor’s hammer, Captain America’s shield, Swordsman’s swords, Hawkeye’s bow and arrows and the android Vision as his trophies. However, Thor freed himself and his fellow Avengers and easily bested Kang in a rematch, forcing the villain to flee the scene, after ejecting the severely damaged Vision from his ship.[volume & issue needed]
Kang and Mantis hid out in Peru where they plotted to get revenge against the Avengers. This plot would never come to fruition as Kang and Mantis were absorbed into Loki in his bid to take over the Earth.[volume & issue needed] Loki was ultimately defeated and while many of the super-beings that he absorbed were seen active following the battle, Kang’s ultimate fate was not depicted.
A female version of Kang appears in the Ultimate universe, claiming that she has a plan to prevent the destruction of Earth. She recruits Quicksilver, the Hulk and Reed Richards as part of a plan to steal the Infinity Gauntlets, and destroys the Triskelion in the process. Kang eventually reveals her identity as Sue Storm.

Élisabeth-Sophie de Lorraine

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Élisabeth-Sophie de Lorraine est une dame de la noblesse française née en 1710 et morte le 2 août 1740 giuseppe zanotti. Appartenant à la Maison de Guise, branche cadette de la Maison de Lorraine, elle est la deuxième épouse de Louis-François-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu (1696-1788).
Seconde fille de Joseph de Lorraine et de Marie-Louise Jeannin de Castille, elle est titrée Mademoiselle de Guise avant son mariage et bénéficie des traitements et des égards réservés aux membres des familles souveraines demeurant en France.
Sa sœur ainée Louise-Henriette-Françoise épouse Emmanuel-Théodose de La Tour d’Auvergne en 1725.
Élisabeth-Sophie est pour sa part fiancée à Paul II Anton Esterházy, mais le mariage ne se réalise pas. Avec l’aide de Voltaire doudoune en ligne, le duc de Richelieu l’épouse le 7 avril 1734. Cette union fait jaser car le duc de Richelieu est de petite noblesse face au sang Lorrain de sa jeune épouse. Il avait été précédemment marié avec Anne-Catherine de Noailles et n’avait pas d’enfants. Ils auront ensemble deux enfants :
Élisabeth-Sophie meurt du scorbut en 1740.
Le duc de Richelieu était un ami proche du roi. Quelques années après la mort de la duchesse de Richelieu, la marquise de Pompadour, favorite royale, envisagea de marier sa fille avec le fils du duc. Le duc de Richelieu n’appréciait guère cette mésalliance mais, courtisan habile, ne voulait pas froisser la marquise ni le roi qui lui accordait son amitié. Il prétendit que sa défunte épouse étant membre de la Maison de Lorraine soccer jerseys 2016 outlet, il ne pouvait marier ses enfants sans l’accord du chef de cette Maison; Or, le chef de cette Maison n’était autre que le souverain du Saint Empire Romain Germanique. La marquise n’osa pas insister et le mariage ne se fit pas.
Le duc de Richelieu ne se remariera qu’en 1780, à 84 ans maje robe, avec Jeanne de Lavaulx (1734-1815) et mourra en 1788.
Une fois la révolution passée et l’empire proclamé, La duchesse, alors septuagénaire, fréquentera la cour des Tuileries mais ne pourra s’empêcher de manifester une certaine aigreur envers Napoléon qu’elle considérait comme un parvenu aussi, soulignant la noblesse de son sang, la vieille dame trouvera un malin plaisir à commencer ses réponses à l’empereur par : “Sire, mon mari disait à Louis XIV…”.

Chrysocheir

Chrysocheir (Greek: Χρυσόχειρ), also known as Chrysocheres, Chrysocheris, or Chrysocheiros (Χρυσόχερης/Χρυσόχερις/Χρυσόχειρος), all meaning “goldhand”, was the last leader of the Paulician principality of Tephrike from 863 to 872.
According to the Byzantine chroniclers, Chrysocheir was a nephew of the Paulician leader Karbeas. Furthermore, according to Peter the Sicilian, he was Karbeas’ “nephew and son-in-law”, indicating that he had married his first cousin, a practice strongly condemned by the Byzantine Church. Following the anti-Paulician pogrom launched in 843 by Empress-regent Theodora, Karbeas and many of his followers had fled to the Muslim border emirates and established an independent principality centred on Tephrike. From there, Karbeas led the Paulicians in wars against Byzantium on the side of the Muslims until his death in 863.
Nothing is known of Chrysocheir’s early life before his succession of his uncle. Like Harbeas, Chrysocheir may in his youth have served in the Byzantine army. A steadfast enemy of Byzantium, Chrysocheir led several raids deep into Byzantine territory even up to the western coasts of Asia Minor and the vicinity of Nicaea, Nicomedia, and Ephesus. In the latter, he is reported to have desecrated the Church of Saint John the Evangelist by stabling his horses there. Emperor Basil I the Macedonian sent envoys to offer peace in 869/70, but the offer was rejected by Chrysocheir, who allegedly demanded that the emperor should vacate the eastern half of his territories in Asia Minor first. It is very likely that the embassy was led by Peter the Sicilian, who reports that he spent nine months in Tephrike at about the same time trying to arrange the release of high-ranking prisoners of war. This hypothesis is not accepted by all modern scholars, however.
In 871, Emperor Basil himself led an attack on Tephrike Sandro Outlet, but failed to take the city and withdrew, but in 872/3, the Domestic of the Schools Christopher led another campaign that scored a decisive victory against the Paulicians at the Battle of Bathys Ryax. During the battle, Chrysocheir was killed by a common soldier called Poullades. His severed head was sent back to Constantinople, where Basil reportedly shot at it with his bow coast dress online, sticking three arrows into it. It was not until six years later Cheap Sandro Clothing, however, that Tephrike itself fell to the Byzantines ferragamo shoes, putting an end to the Paulician principality. Some modern scholars nevertheless date the defeat and death of Chrysocheir on the same year as the fall of Tephrike (i.e. 878/9).
It is commonly considered that the memory of Chrysocheir survived in the Byzantine epic poem Digenes Akritas in the form of “Chrysoberges” (Χρυσοβέργης), the Muslim paternal grandfather of the eponymous hero.

Awa Tsireh

Awa Tsireh (February 1, 1898 – March 30, 1955), was a San Ildefonso Pueblo painter also known as Alfonso Roybal and Cattail Bird. He was part of the art movement known as the San Ildefonso Self-Taught Group.

Tsireh’s family was very active in the arts. His parents were Alfonsita Martinez, a native potter, and Juan Estaba Roybal, the nephew of the known potter, Cresencio Martinez. His nephew was pueblo painter, José Disiderio (J.D

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He was one of the earliest of the San Ildefonso painters and his formal education did not extend past grade school.
In 1917, American artist William Penhallow Henderson painted a portrait of young Awa Tsireh which can now be found in the New Mexico Museum of Art Nike voetbalschoenen online winkel. And his wife, Alice Corbin Henderson, was a patron of Awa Tsireh.
Tsireh had the support of Dr. Edgar Lee Hewett, who provided studio space for him in the Palace of the Governors. His art is in the permanent collection of several museums, including the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
At various times in his life, Awa Tsireh was a farmer, a pottery painter, a museum employee, a painter, a silversmith and a muralist. One of his most notable artistic commissions was for a mural at Maisel’s Indian Trading Post in Albuquerque, New Mexico where murals depicting Indian life, painted by Pueblo and Navajo artists, were prominently displayed

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Tsireh worked in watercolor and in transparent colored ink and pencil. He also created silver and gemstone pieces of art. Awa Tsireh painted in 3 different styles Bogner Jacket online shop; a simple realism, a combination of symbolism and realism, and a completely non-realistic style, per Samuels’ Encyclopedia of Artists of the American West, (1968).
• Awa Tsireh art collection at the Smithsonian American Art Museum

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