Danièle Hervieu-Léger

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Danièle Hervieu-Léger, née le 3 février 1947, est une universitaire française spécialisée dans la sociologie des religions.

Née en 1947 à Paris, diplômée de l’Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris, licenciée en Droit (Faculté de Droit de Paris), Docteur en sociologie (EPHE VIe section) maillots de football, Docteur d’État en Lettres et Sciences Humaines (Université Sorbonne René-Descartes), elle a commencé sa carrière au Groupe de Sociologie des Religions du CNRS, comme chargé, puis directrice de recherche, de 1974 à 1992. Directrice d’études à l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales à partir de 1992, elle y a dirigé le Centre d’Études Interdisciplinaires des Faits Religieux (UMR EHESS/CNRS) de 1993 à 2004. Elle a été rédactrice en chef de la revue Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions de 1986 à 2004. Elle est actuellement membre du Centre d’Anthropologie Religieuse Européenne (CARE) du Centre de Recherches Historiques (CRH, EHESS/CNRS).
Elle a été Présidente de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales de 2004 à 2009. Dans ces fonctions, elle a notamment participé très activement au lancement du projet de grand campus pour les Sciences Humaines et Sociales dans la nouvelle carte universitaire du Grand Paris. Le projet est aujourd’hui en voie de réalisation: le Campus Condorcet, réunissant un ensemble d’établissements d’enseignement supérieur et de laboratoires de recherche autour d’un grand équipement documentaire, devrait ouvrir ses portes à Aubervilliers en 2018.
Elle a été présidente du Conseil d’Administration de l’Institut national d’Études Démographiques (INED) de 2009 à 2012. Elle est actuellement membre du Conseil d’Administration de l’École Nationale des Chartes 2016 pas cher soccer jerseys, membre du Conseil d’Administration de l’Institut Français des Relations Internationales (IFRI), membre du Conseil d’Administration de l’École Normale Supérieure de Cachan et membre du Conseil scientifique de l’Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques et techniques (IHEST).
Spécialiste de sociologie des religions, Danièle Hervieu-Léger a consacré l’essentiel de ses recherches à la description sociologique et à l’interprétation théorique de la modernité religieuse : sécularisation, individualisation du croire, formes de religiosité et de communalisation, transformations des institutions. Les questions de l’utopie, de la mémoire et du changement religieux ont été les fils rouges de ses recherches depuis le début de sa carrière. Spécialiste du christianisme, elle a travaillé particulièrement sur les problèmes de transmission, de conversion et de formation des identités religieuses en modernité. Ses travaux les plus récents concernent les processus de dislocation et réaménagement de la matrice culturelle chrétienne des sociétés européennes. Elle prépare actuellement un ouvrage (intitulé provisoirement “Le Temps des moines”) qui entreprend de construire une sociologie du temps chrétien en modernité, à partir du dossier des refondations, expériences réformatrices et créations monastiques (bénédictines et cisterciennes) en Europe entre XIXe et XXIe siècle.
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History of Dallas (1930–45)

This article is part of a series on: The City of Dallas
The history of Dallas, Texas (USA) from 1930 to 1945 documents the city’s emergence from the Great Depression, its economic boom after several local oil discoveries, its hosting of the Texas Centennial Exposition, and its existence during wartime.

Despite the onset of the Great Depression, business in construction was flourishing in 1930. That year, Columbus Marion “Dad” Joiner struck oil 100 miles (160 km) east of Dallas in Kilgore, spawning the East Texas oil boom kurtki bogner, part of the larger Texas Oil Boom of the early 1900s. Dallas quickly became the financial center for the oil industry in Texas and Oklahoma. In the first months of 1931, 28 petroleum-related businesses either moved to or formed in Dallas. Banks made loans to develop the oil fields, and Dallas became the financial center for all oil fields in the Texas Panhandle, the Permian Basin, East Texas, Gulf Coast, and Oklahoma. This put off most thoughts of depression until the middle of 1931, when falling prices and overproduction affected the city economy negatively. By then kurtki bogner, more than 18,000 people in the city were unemployed. Before the New Deal policy began, the city had a work-for-food program that helped many.
By 1931, the city had not completed the rerouting of the Trinity River and the construction of an extensive levee system based on plans by George Kessler.
After a long campaign in the years leading up to 1936, the state of Texas chose Dallas as the site of the 1936 Texas Centennial Exposition. More than fifty buildings were built for the Exposition in Fair Park, and 10 million visitors came to see the US$25 million spectacle.
During World War II, Dallas served as a manufacturing center for the war effort kurtki bogner. By 1940, the population of the city of Dallas had reached 294,734. In 1942, the Ford Motor plant in Dallas converted to war-time production, producing only jeeps and military trucks. In 1943 the city began war rationing, with 376,085 ration books distributed kurtki bogner. University of Texas Southwestern Medical School was also established this year.

Pubic arch

The pubic arch is part of the pelvis. It is formed by the convergence of the inferior rami of the ischium and pubis on either side, below the pubic symphysis. The angle at which they converge is known as the subpubic angle.

The pubic arch is one of three notches (the one in front) that separated the eminences of the lower circumference of the true pelvis.[citation needed]
The subpubic angle (or pubic angle) is the angle in the human body formed at pubic arch by the convergence of the inferior rami of the ischium and pubis on either side. The subpubic angle is important in forensic anthropology, in determining the sex of someone from skeletal remains. A subpubic angle of 50-82 degrees indicates a male; an angle of 90 degrees indicates a female. Women have wider hips – a greater subpubic angle – in order to allow for child birth cheap jerseys. Other sources operates with 50-60 degrees for males and 70-90 degrees in females.
As seen in the picture , there is a distinctive difference between the pubic arch of a male and a female. This difference is found in the subpubic angle. The area in which the pubic arch is located is the pelvis thai quality Adidas jerseys, the area that is most different between male and female anatomy chanel bolsos espana. The subpubic angle of a man is generally 50-60 degrees while that of a woman is generally 70-90 degrees. The reason for this difference has to do with childbirth. A woman’s pubic arch is wider in order to allow for the passage of the child during birth. The pelvic inlet of a female is also wider because the child’s head must pass through it giuseppe zanotti outlet. The pubic arch is also referred to as the ischiopubic arch.
Female subpubic angle
Male subpubic angle
This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray’s Anatomy (1918)

Job Bartram

Job Bartram (March 20, 1735 – Oct

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Bartram was born in Fairfield, Connecticut on March 20, 1735. He married Jerusha Thompson on November 18, 1762. She died on November 23, 1773. Bartram next married Abigail Starr on November 7, 1774. They had one son Daniel Starr Bartram, born 1775. He next married Elizabeth Scudder on August 27, 1776.
Bartram was in command of a company in Connecticut’s Fifth Regiment under Colonel Samuel Whiting in 1777. He was wounded in Fairfield, in 1779.
Job Bartram was drowned along with Stephen Morehouse off Black Rock Harbor, Bridgeport.
Tomb inscription: “In memory of Mr. Job Bartram who was drowned October 28 2016 bolsos chanel precios, 1817 aged 50 years & 6 months. Also of Jane daughter of Mr. Job & Mrs. Ruth Bartram died Oct 29. 1815 2016 bolsos chanel, aged 16 months. Death like an overflowing stream 2016 hermes bolsos, Sweeps us away: our life’s a dream: An empty tale, a morning flower. Cut down and wither’d in an hour.”

Modal jazz

Modal jazz is jazz that uses musical modes rather than chord progressions as a harmonic framework. Originating in the late 1950s and 1960s, modal jazz is epitomized by Miles Davis’s 1958 composition “Milestones”, 1959 album Kind of Blue, and John Coltrane’s classic quartet from 1960–64. Other important performers include Woody Shaw, Bill Evans, Herbie Hancock, Wayne Shorter, McCoy Tyner, Larry Young, Pharoah Sanders, Joe Henderson, Chick Corea and Bobby Hutcherson. Though the term comes from the use of the pitches of particular modes (or scales) in the creation of solos, modal jazz compositions or accompaniments may only or additionally make use of the following techniques:[not in citation given]

An understanding of modal jazz requires knowledge of musical modes. In bebop as well as in hard bop, musicians use chords to provide the background for solos. A song starts out with a theme that introduces the chords for the solos. These chords repeat throughout the whole song, while the soloists play new, improvised themes over the repeated chord progression. By the 1950s 2016 hermes tassen, improvising over chords had become such a dominant part of jazz, that sidemen at recording dates were sometimes given nothing more than a list of chords to play from.
Mercer Ellington has stated that Juan Tizol conceived the melody to “Caravan” in 1936 as a result of his days studying music in Puerto Rico, where they couldn’t afford much sheet music so the teacher would turn the music upside down after they had learned to play it right-side up. This “inversion” technique led to a modal sound throughout Tizol’s work. Towards the end of the 1950s, spurred by the experiments of composer and bandleader George Russell, musicians began using a modal approach. They chose not to write their pieces using conventional chord changes, but instead using modal scales. Musicians employing this technique include Miles Davis, Freddie Hubbard, Bill Evans, Herbie Hancock, and Wayne Shorter.
Among the significant compositions of modal jazz were “So What” by Miles Davis and “Impressions” by John Coltrane. “So What” and “Impressions” follow the same AABA song form and were in D Dorian for the A sections and modulated a half step up to E-flat Dorian for the B section. The Dorian mode is the natural minor scale with a raised sixth. Other compositions include Davis’ “Flamenco Sketches”, Bill Evans’ “Peace Piece”, and Shorter’s “Footprints”.
Miles Davis recorded one of the best selling jazz albums of all time in this modal framework. Kind of Blue is an exploration of the possibilities of modal jazz. Included on these sessions was tenor saxophonist John Coltrane who, throughout the 1960s, would explore the possibilities of modal improvisation more deeply than any other jazz artist. The rest of the musicians on the album were alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley, pianists Bill Evans and Wynton Kelly (though never on the same piece), bassist Paul Chambers, and drummer Jimmy Cobb. (Kelly, Chambers, and Cobb would eventually form the Wynton Kelly Trio.) This record is considered a kind of test album in many conservatories focusing on jazz improvisation[citation needed]. The compositions “So What” and “All Blues” from Kind of Blue are considered contemporary jazz standards. Davis has acknowledged the crucial role played by Bill Evans, a former member of George Russell’s ensembles, in his transition from hard bop to modal playing.
While Davis’ explorations of modal jazz were sporadic throughout the 1960s—he would include several of the tunes from Kind of Blue in the repertoire of his “Second Great Quintet”—Coltrane would take the lead in extensively exploring the limits of modal improvisation and composition with his own classic quartet, featuring Elvin Jones (drums), McCoy Tyner (piano), and Reggie Workman and Jimmy Garrison (bass) 2016 dior kleding. Several of Coltrane’s albums from the period are recognized as seminal albums in jazz more broadly 2016 chanel tassen, but especially modal jazz: Giant Steps, Live! at the Village Vanguard (1961), Crescent (1964), A Love Supreme (1964), and Meditations (1965). Coltrane’s compositions from this period such as “India,” “Chasin’ the Trane,” “Crescent,” and “Impressions” have entered the jazz repertoire, along with his interpretations of standards like Richard Rodgers’ “My Favorite Things”, and the traditional “Greensleeves”.
Coltrane’s modal explorations gave rise to an entire generation of saxophonists (mostly playing tenor saxophone) that would then go on to further explore modal jazz (often in combination with jazz fusion), such as Michael Brecker 2016 hermes birkin, David Liebman, Steve Grossman, and Bob Berg.
Another great innovator in the field of modal jazz is pianist Herbie Hancock. He is well known for working in Miles Davis’s “Second Great Quintet”, Herbie Hancock recorded a number of solo albums, the fifth of which was Maiden Voyage (1965), two years after joining Miles’ band. On the title song of this album Hancock uses solely suspended chords that are played throughout the entire piece and played with a very open sound due to Hancock’s use of fourths in voicing the chords. The piece’s haunting repeating vamps in the rhythm section and the searching feeling of the entire piece has made “Maiden Voyage” one of the most famous modal pieces.
A true precursor to modal jazz was found in the hands of virtuoso jazz pianist, composer and trio innovator Ahmad Jamal whose early use of extended vamps (freezing the advance of the song at some point for repetition or interjecting new song fragments) allowed him to solo for long periods infusing that section of the song with fresh ideas and percussive effects over a repetitive drum and bass figuration. Miles Davis was effusive in his praise for Jamal’s influence on him, his playing, and his music: a perfect setup for the modal work that lay in Davis’s future.

Roger Chapelain-Midy

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Roger Chapelain, dit Roger Chapelain-Midy, né le 24 août 1904 à Paris, mort dans cette même ville le 30 mars 1992, est un peintre, lithographe maillots de foot 2016, illustrateur et décorateur de théâtre français.

Roger Chapelain-Midy fait des études à l’École des beaux-arts de Paris où 2016 soccer jerseys en ligne, il deviendra professeur chef d’atelier de 1955 à 1974, puis poursuit sa formation artistique dans les académies de peintures du quartier de Montparnasse. Il expose en 1927 au Salon d’automne et à partir de 1929 au Salon des indépendants et au Salon des Tuileries.
Passionné par la Renaissance, la peinture de Poussin et celle du XVIIe siècle, il défend une tradition classique, faite de mesure, dans une époque qui voit les grands bouleversements de la peinture moderne. Il réalise des natures mortes et des paysages. Il voyage beaucoup, tant en Europe qu’en Amérique du Nord et du Sud.
Il réalise des décorations murales pour la mairie du 4e arrondissement de Paris, le foyer du théâtre national de Chaillot, l’Institut agronomique de Paris, ainsi que des décorations pour des paquebots, dont le France.
Décorateur et costumier de théâtre, il a notamment travaillé pour Les Indes galantes de Rameau en 1952, et pour La Flûte enchantée de Mozart à l’Opéra de Paris en 1954[Lien à corriger]. On lui doit aussi des illustrations pour des textes de Jean Giraudoux, André Gide, Charles Baudelaire, Fontenelle (Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes), Jean de La Fontaine, Charles Vildrac, Georges Simenon (La Fenêtre des Rouet, 1945), etc. Il a illustré la couverture de La Chanson de Maguelonne de Michel Mourlet pour la Table Ronde (1973).
Il reçoit le prix Carnegie (en) en 1938 adidas soccer jerseys 2016 outlet. Valéry Giscard d’Estaing lui commande un Portrait du Général de Gaulle destiné au palais de l’Élysée à Paris. Dans une lignée tardive du symbolisme et du surréalisme, toute une partie de son œuvre porte l’empreinte de ses préoccupations spirituelles, matérialisées par la récurrence obsédante de décors et d’objets insolites tels que carrelages en damier robe sandro, masques, mannequins et miroirs.
Il publie un recueil de souvenirs et de réflexions sur l’art, Comme le sable entre les doigts, chez Gallimard en 1984 (prix Eugène Delacroix).
Roger Chapelain-Midy est enterré à Nancray-sur-Rimarde (Loiret).
Décors et Costumes :

Mikael Rosén (Fußballspieler)


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Mikael Rosén (* 15. August 1974) Discount Nike Strumpf Steckdose 2016, auch bekannt als Mikael Gustavsson, ist ein schwedischer Fußballspieler. Der Defensivspieler, der zwischen 1999 und 2003 unregelmäßig für die schwedische Nationalmannschaft auflief, gewann zweimal mit Halmstads BK den schwedischen Meistertitel.
Mikael Gustavsson begann mit dem Fußballspielen bei Fågelsta AIF. 1992 ging er zum Zweitligisten Motala AIF, der jedoch am Ende der Spielzeit in die dritte Liga abstieg. Am Ende der Spielzeit 1995 gelang die Rückkehr in die Zweitklassigkeit. Parallel zu seiner Fußballkarriere spielte er zunächst lieber Bandy, als Thomas Nordahl Trainer der Fußballmannschaft wurde, konnte dieser ihn für die Fußballkarriere begeistern. Nach einem Jahr in der Division 1 wechselte Gustavsson zur Spielzeit 1997 in die Allsvenskan zu Halmstads BK ted baker deutschland.
In seiner ersten Erstligaspielzeit kam Gustavsson auf 24 Einsätze und konnte am Ende der Saison seinen ersten Meistertitel feiern. In den folgenden beiden Jahren verpasste er kein Saisonspiel und spielte sich damit in den erweiterten Kreis der schwedischen Nationalmannschaft

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. Am 29. Januar 1998 debütierte er beim 0:0-Unentschieden gegen Jamaika im Jersey der Landesauswahl. Gegen denselben Gegner kam er am 27. Mai 1999 zu seinem zweiten Länderspieleinsatz, als er beim 2:1-Erfolg in der zweiten Halbzeit Roland Nilsson ersetzte. Nach seinem zweiten Meistertitel mit Halmstads BK im Jahr 2000 verließ er den Klub und wechselte zu Helsingborgs IF.
Bei HIF spielte Gustavsson drei Spielzeiten. Dabei verpasste er nur ein Saisonspiel, konnte jedoch keinen Titel mit dem Verein gewinnen. Im Frühjahr 2003 konnte er sich jedoch wieder zurück in die Nationalmannschaft spielen und kam am 12. Februar zu seinem dritten Einsatz im Nationaltrikot

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, als die Landesauswahl mit 0:1 gegen Tunesien verlor. 2004 wechselte er nach Dänemark zu Viborg FF, wo er einen Zweijahresvertrag unterschrieb. In seiner Zeit in Dänemark änderte er seinen Nachnamen in Rosén um.
Während der Spielzeit 2006 kehrte Rosén zum Halmstads BK in die Allsvenskan zurück. Bei seiner ehemaligen Spielstation etablierte er sich auf Anhieb in der Stammformation. An der Seite von Magnus Bahne, Tim Sparv, Michael Görlitz, Tomas Žvirgždauskas und Ajsel Kujovic gehörte er in den folgenden Jahren zu den Garanten, die dem Klub regelmäßig zum Klassenerhalt in der ersten schwedischen Liga verhalfen.

Gray bat

The gray bat (Myotis grisescens) once flourished in caves all over the southeastern United States, but due to human disturbance, gray bat populations declined severely during the early and mid portion of the 20th century. At one cave alone, the Georgetown Cave in northwestern Alabama, populations declined from 150,000 gray bats to 10,000 by 1969. M. grisescens has been listed as federally endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service since 1976, and is protected under the Endangered Species Act. Gray bat populations were estimated at approximately 2 million bats around the time they were placed on the Endangered Species list. By the early 1980s populations of gray bats dropped to 1.6 million. With conservation efforts in place, in 2002, gray bat populations were estimated to have reached 2.3 million.

M. grisescens are the largest members of their genus in the eastern United States. Of all U.S. mammals, gray bats are, perhaps, the most cave-dependent.
Gray bats have uni-colored dark gray fur on their backs that may bleach to a russet or chestnut brown after the molting season (July or August). Unlike in other species of Myotis, where the wing membrane connects to the toe, in M. grisescens, the wing membrane connects to the ankle. Gray bats typically weigh between 7 and 16 grams. Gray bats can live up to 17 years, but only about 50% of gray bats survive to maturity. Sexual maturity occurs at about age 2. Although an adult gray bat’s forearm measures only about 40–46 mm, Gray bats with forearm lengths of 39.5 mm (approx. 1.55 in) or less cannot fly. The flight speed of the gray bat, M. grisescens, has been calculated at 20.3 km/h (12.61 mph) during migration. While foraging, gray bats have been clocked at a flying rate of anywhere between 17 km/h and 39 km/h.
Gray bats live in limestone karst areas in Alabama, northern Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, northwestern Florida, western Georgia, southern Kansas, southern Indiana, southern and southwestern Illinois, northeastern Oklahoma, northeastern Mississippi, western Virginia, and possibly western North Carolina. Gray bats are cave obligate (or cave dependent) bats, meaning that with very few exceptions (in which cave-like conditions are created in man-made structures) gray bats only live in caves, not in abandoned barns or other structures as other species of bats are known to do. Less than 5% of all available caves are inhabited by gray bats. Thus, any disturbance to these cave habitats can be extremely detrimental to gray bat populations.
Fall migration occurs in approximately the same order as spring emergence, with females departing first (early September for fall migration) and juveniles leaving last (mid-October). Gray bats may migrate as far as 500 km (310 mi) from summer caves to reach hibernation caves. The annual activity period of gray bats is April to October, though female gray bats enter hibernation in September.
After arriving at winter caves, copulation occurs. Females immediately enter hibernation, while males may remain active for a few more weeks. Males use this extra time before entering hibernation to replenish fat reserves used during breeding. Males begin hibernation by early November. During hibernation, the body temperature of gray bats drops close to the ambient temperature, allowing the body to conserve fat. These fat reserves must last the approximately six months of hibernation and spring migration. Adult mortality is especially high during spring migration, as bats that do not have sufficient fat reserves have difficulties surviving the stress and energy-intensive migration period. After copulation, females store sperm in their uteri, ovulating only after they have emerged from hibernation. Gestation in gray bats lasts 60 to 70 days, with birth occurring in late May and early June. Gray Bat females give birth to one offspring per clutch (bout of reproduction), thus giving birth to one offspring per year. Therefore, gray bats demonstrate an iteroparous life-history strategy. The young clings to the mother for about a week, after which they remain in the maternity colony until they are able to fly. Most young take flight by four weeks of age (late June to mid-July).
Annual molting occurs between early June and early August, during which gray bats eat larger amounts of hair than at other times during the activity season. During grooming, gray bats also ingest ectoparasites such as chiggers that live in their fur. Gray Bats are believed to groom extensively before beginning their nightly hunt. They then spend the nighttime hours hunting and digesting.
Although the habitat range of the gray bat incorporates much of the southeastern United States, the largest summer colonies of gray bats are located within the Guntersville Reservoir. This reservoir, found in northeastern Alabama, contains the Sauta (formerly Blowing Wind) and Hambrick caves which can accommodate over 100,000 gray bats. Gray bats use caves differently at different times of the year. For example, populations of gray bats tend to cluster in caves known as hibernacula to prepare for winter hibernation. In contrast, their populations disperse during the spring to establish sexually segregated colonies. Females form maternity colonies (also known as summer maternity roosts) while males aggregate in non-maternity, or bachelor colonies. These bachelor colonies also house yearlings of both sexes. Gray bats also utilize a third type of cave, the dispersal cave, which they inhabit only during migration.
For their hibernacula, gray bats prefer deep, cool caves with average temperatures ranging from 5 to 11 °C. Multiple entrances and good airflow comprise the other characteristics that gray bats find desirable. Winter hibernacula are already cold when gray bats begin arriving in September. Summer caves are usually located along rivers and have temperatures that range from 14 to 25 °C. Summer caves typically contain structural heat traps (including domed ceilings, small chambers, and porous rock surfaces) that capture the metabolic heat from the clustered gray bats, allowing the nursery populations to succeed. Preferred summer colony caves are within 1 km of a body of water and are rarely further than 4 km away from a lake or major river. The average roosting density of gray bats is 1828 bats/m2.
Gray bats forage over water, including streams and reservoirs, where they consume night-flying insects most of which have aquatic larval stages. and in the riparian forests nearby these water sources. M. grisescens activity tends to be concentrated over slower moving water or quiet pools than areas of fast moving water. Foraging usually occurs below treetop height but above 2m. Gray bats tend to fly downstream more often than upstream, suggesting a potential preference for wider sections typical of downstream sections as opposed to upstream portions (with a tendency to be narrower). M. grisescens tend to forage over extensive ranges, averaging 12.5 km but ranging from 2.5 km to 35.4 km. While gray bats have been shown to forage in small groups when prey is abundant, especially during the early hours of the night, when prey is scarce, gray bats can become territorial. Territories tend to be controlled by reproductive females. These females seem to claim the same territory year after year.
Gray bats consume a variety of insects including Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (flies), Ephemeroptera (mayflies, of which Gray Bats consume at least six species), Lepidoptera (moths), Neuroptera (net-winged insects), Trichoptera (caddis flies), and Plecoptera (stoneflies). Juveniles have a tendency to forage more in woodlands and eat more beetles than adults, perhaps they provide a greater energy reward per unit of capture effort. For example, beetles provide 1900–2800 calories/g wet weight versus 800–1400 calories/g wet weight for mayflies. M. grisescens juveniles also eat a less diverse diet than adults, possibly because juveniles are more dependent on high concentrations of prey or swarming prey. Gray bats are believed to be part opportunists, and part selective eaters. (Outside of captivity, gray bats are limited by the sporadic emergences of potential prey. When prey emerges, there is only an abundance of a few taxa at any given time. The available taxa change based on the time of night, the month, and the time during the activity season.) In their natural habitats, gray bats appear to attack any moving target that is of appropriate size, consistent with optimal foraging theory that predicts palatable insects of an appropriate size should be eaten when encountered. In captivity, under controlled laboratory conditions, however, insectivorous bats used echolocation to discriminate heavily among potential prey based on shape and texture of a target. This lack of discrimination may be because of the rapid flight of bats and the short range at which prey can be detected using echolocation, allowing bats only a fraction of a second after detection to capture prey. However, gray bats are believed to discriminate somewhat between insects when foraging in their natural habitat, consuming higher numbers of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, and in some populations Trichoptera, than their proportional prevalence would have otherwise indicated without selective foraging. Because of this tendency to select prey while being largely opportunistic, gray bats have been dubbed ‘selective opportunists’. Scientists believe that food moves quickly through the digestive tract of M. grisescens, with feces being purged from the body within 1–2 hours after ingestion.
Gray bats, as is the case in other organisms, acquire and use energy for growth and maintenance of their bodies before reaching sexual maturity, at which point much of their energy expenditure is devoted to reproductive processes. Gray bats prefer caves located near appropriate foraging sites to reduce the energy costs of flying long distances to find food. Gray bats roost in large colonies to reduce the cost of temperature regulation on the individual. Female bats must maintain relatively high body temperatures in comparison to the cooler temperatures of the cave during lactation, requiring large amounts of energy. During the peak lactation period, when young are roughly 20–30 days old, females may spend as many as 7 hours a night feeding. Because of the high energy demands on the females, larger roosts are more beneficial so that all may share the burden of maintaining body temperature. The formation of large colonies does at some point, however, have a negative trade-off. As the size of the colony increases, intraspecific competition for food resources increase, forcing an individual to forage over a larger range. This increased foraging range will lead to greater energy expenditure, potentially reducing growth in gray bat juveniles. The distance a gray bat travels from the roosting area to foraging area has been shown to be negatively correlated to the average weight of gray bats (the longer the distance the bat must fly to forage tory burch sale, the less the bat will weigh), lending support to the idea that long flights are energetically costly.
The tendency of gray bats to form large colonies made the gray bat especially vulnerable to population decline due to both intentional and unintentional human disturbance. While gray bat habitat locations were always ‘patchy,’ gray bat habitats have become increasingly more isolated and fragmented with human perturbation. Suspected factors contributing to species decline include impoundment of waterways (the creation of dams, which causes flooding in former bat caves), cave commercialization, natural flooding, pesticides, water pollution and siltation, and local deforestation. All North American bat species classified as endangered or threatened by the US. Fish and Wildlife service are cave dwelling species. Of these species, the gray bat congregates in larger numbers at fewer winter hibernacula than any other North American bat. Approximately 95% of gray bats hibernate in 11 winter hibernacula, with 31% hibernating in a single cave located in northern Alabama. Because of their high population densities in appropriate habitats, gray bats serve as an important indicator species for conservation efforts.
Pesticide use and manufacturing have been one of the most prevalently studied contributions to population decline of M. grisescens. One such study focused on gray bat populations of the Tennessee River area of northern Alabama where scientists and conservators noted a higher than normal Gray Bat mortality. In this area, since 1947, large amounts of DDTR (DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), DDD, and DDE) flowed through waterways from the DDT manufacturing site located on the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama down to the habitat area of M. grisescens, where heavy contamination of the local biota has occurred. Lethal chemical concentrations of DDT in the brains of adult bats are about 1.5 times higher than in juveniles. Because M. grisescens feed on many types of insects with aquatic larval stages, it is believed that this food source may be the root of the chemical concentrations. Many of the bats tested in different studies were juveniles not able to fly, and thus were likely to have only consumed milk. After concentration through lactation, a few parts per million in prey of the adult gray bat would cause mortality in these juveniles karen millen ireland outlet. Under conditions of rapid fat utilization, such as migratory stress or initiation of flight by juveniles, residue mobilization of harmful chemicals may occur, causing mortality. Other pesticides linked with gray bat population decline include dieldrin and dieldrin’s parent compound aldrin, which have also increased mortality in other bat species. Even though the manufacture of DDT ceased in 1970 and the manufacture of dieldrin and aldrin in October 1974, heavy contamination of the biota persisted. Recently, however, guano samples from various habitats indicate a decline in certain detrimental chemicals. For example, guano from Cave Springs cave shows a decline of 41% in DDE (a compound related to DDT) between 1976 and 1985 and guano from Key Cave shows a decline of 67% for the same time period. However, it is unknown how long these chemicals will remain in concentrations that will cause harm to wildlife.
Direct human disturbance and vandalism is the major factor leading to population decline in gray bats. During the 1960s, bats were killed for entertainment purposes as they emerged from caves or were caught to be used for pranks. Many property-owners attempted to exterminate entire colonies due to unsubstantiated fears that the bats may be carrying rabies. Bats that roost within 100m inside the cave and only 2m above the cave floor are especially prone to vandalism and high-intensity disturbance. Bats that roost in higher ceilings or further inside the cave are less prone to direct destruction. One study showed that caves with ceiling heights greater than 15 m above the floor were virtually protected from spelunkers. Even without direct destruction, human visitation to caves can cause adverse effects on Gray Bat populations. Each human entry into a cave causes all bats within range of light or sound to at least partially arouse from hibernation. Arousal of gray bats while they are hibernating can cause them to use up energy, lowering their energy reserves. Because these reserves must sustain the bats through hibernation and spring migration, if the bat runs out of reserves, it may leave the cave too soon, decreasing its chances of survival. Each disturbance during hibernation is estimated to use energy that otherwise could sustain a gray bat through 10–30 days of undisturbed hibernation. When flightless young are present in June and July, females escaping a predator or other disturbance may drop their young in the panic, leading to increased juvenile mortality.
Many factors play an important role in determining a viable habitat for M. grisescens. Among these are the natural characteristics of the cave entrance, physical features of the cave, and surface climate. These contributing factors play an especially important role in determining the internal conditions that foster cave fauna. Because the gray bat is a cave dwelling species, its range is limited to caves whose internal conditions are favorable. Human intervention has caused a precipitous decline in the number of suitable caves for the gray bat. Thus, to maximize the gray bat’s range, the United States government is funding cave gating programs. Cave gating is an accepted method in protecting cave dwelling species as it limits the impact of human disturbance upon internal cave conditions. In constructing internal cave gates, several key parameters were implemented to minimize changes in the airflow through the cave and the ability of the bats to either access or leave the cave. With these limitations in mind, the internal cave gating was placed 5 to 15 meters in advance of historically critical roost areas. In addition, a 15 cm clearance between bars of the gating was allowed to ensure unobstructed flight into and out of the cave. Early cave gating methods that did not account for these factors frequently led to cave abandonment. In assessing the proficiency of cave gating, two metrics were established: population dynamics before and after the construction of cave gate and initiation of emergence from the cave. Population estimates were derived from the accumulation of bat guano. More guano indicated the presence of a larger population. In manipulating the emergence of gray bats from the caves under study, infrared light sources were used. Observations of the frequency of emergence of the bats from open caves and gated caves confirm that gating is not an impediment. Gated entrances, however, have provided new opportunities for natural predators of gray bats. Because gates sometimes require the bats to fly slower, as well as providing hunting perches to predators within reach of emerging bats, natural predation may be increased by cave gating.
In their 1982 Gray Bat Recovery Plan, the US Fish and Wildlife Service laid out steps to stop decline of gray bat populations and preserve gray bat habitats. In this plan, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service proposed purchasing the caves where gray bats are known to live, and at these locations reducing human access to prevent human disturbance. To reduce human impact on gray bat populations, gating, fencing, signposting, and surveillance by law enforcement may be utilized. Because Gray Bats use different caves depending on the season, efforts should be focused seasonally. Rivers, reservoir shorelines, and forests should be left intact near gray bat caves to allow for adequate foraging. Any activity occurring within a 25 km radius of a major gray bat cave, such as pesticide use, herbicide use, clearing The Kooples Clothing, or any activity that may result in siltation should be carefully considered and revised if necessary. Government officials and landowners of property with gray bat caves should be educated about gray bats and potentially harmful activities. Finally, the US Fish and Wildlife Service recognized the need for continuing research from the scientific community to further understand human impact on this vulnerable species.
After 37 years without a single documented gray bat within the state boundaries of Mississippi, on September 20 ted baker online shop, 2004, a male Gray Bat was discovered in Tishomingo County in northeastern Mississippi, 42 km south of the last known location of M. grisescens before their decline and disappearance within the state of Mississippi. (Before this 2004 discovery, the only known gray bats lived at a site known as Chalk Mine, located in the northeastern portion of the county. Gray bats had last been documented at Chalk Mine in 1967.) Extensive human disturbance, including the presence of trash, smoke, and graffiti, is believed to have affected the use of the Chalk Mine by bats. While the discovery of this bat is deemed as a positive sign by conservationists, it is possible that the bat was not from a Mississippi M. grisescens population. The closest known gray bat maternal colony, located at Blowing Springs Cave, Alabama, is 90 kilometres (56 mi) northeast of where the 2004 gray bat was found, but because Gray Bats are known to forage over extensive areas, it is possible that this bat belonged to the Blowing Springs Cave colony. In the western portion of the range of M. grisescens, from 1978 to 2002, M. grisescens populations at 21 of 48 (44%) maternity caves showed a significantly increasing trend, 17 (35%) had no trend, and 10 (21%) were decreasing. A study in 2003 attempted a species-wide assessment in gray bat summer cave populations. This study found that of 76 maternity colonies, 3 (4%) were increasing, 66 (87%) had no discernible trends, and 7 (9%) had decreasing trends. The Endangered Species Act requires that 90% of the most important hibernacula be protected and that populations at 75% of the most important maternity colonies be stable or increasing over a period of 5 years for the gray bat to be down-listed from endangered to threatened status. Because the range of the gray bat is so vast, and sampling techniques so varied and incomplete (thus data is somewhat unreliable when attempting to do species-wide census), gray bats are unlikely to be downgraded any time soon. However, gray bat populations appear to be increasing with stringent conservation efforts and educational programs, making the future of the gray bat far brighter today than when it came under the protection of the Endangered Species Act 35 years ago.[citation needed]
Data related to Myotis grisescens at Wikispecies

WNC Championship

The WNC Championship was a professional wrestling championship owned by the Wrestling New Classic (WNC) promotion. The title was a spiritual successor to the Smash Championship, the top title of WNC’s predecessor, Smash. The championship was first announced at a press conference on September 28, 2012, when it was announced that a single-elimination tournament to determine the inaugural champion would take place from October 26 to December 27. In storyline, the championship belt was donated to WNC by the final Smash Champion and WWE road agent Dave Finlay, who was also named the head of the WNC Championship Committee, which decides matches for the title tory burch sale.
Like most professional wrestling championships, the title is won as a result of a scripted match. There were five reigns shared among five wrestlers.

On September 28, 2012, Tajiri converse schuhe, the founder of Wrestling New Classic (WNC), announced the creation of the WNC Championship, with an eight-man single-elimination tournament starting on October 26 in Korakuen Hall. The eight participants were announced as Tajiri, Akira, Hajime Ohara, StarBuck, Carlito, Tommy Dreamer and two unnamed participants labeled only as “1st Future” and “2nd Future”. On October 3 sacs de mode, Tajiri and WNC president Tsutomu Takashima decided the first round matchups via random draw. Three days later, another random draw picked Yusuke Kodama and Adam Angel out of a group of six younger WNC wrestlers to take the “Future” spots in the tournament. The first three first round matches took place on October 26 and saw Akira defeat Adam Angel, Hajime Ohara defeat the inaugural Smash Champion StarBuck and Tajiri defeat visiting former WWE wrestler Carlito. The final first round match took place on November 26 and saw Tommy Dreamer defeat Yusuke Kodama to advance. In the semifinals two days later, Akira defeated Tommy Dreamer, while Tajiri defeated Hajime Ohara, setting up a final match between the two veterans. On December 27 herve leger dress, Akira defeated Tajiri to become the inaugural WNC Champion.

Multivalued dependency

In database theory, a multivalued dependency is a full constraint between two sets of attributes in a relation.
In contrast to the functional dependency, the multivalued dependency requires that certain tuples be present in a relation Maje Online Shop. Therefore, a multivalued dependency is a special case of tuple-generating dependency. The multivalued dependency plays a role in the 4NF database normalization.
A multivalued dependency is a special case of a join dependency, with only two sets of values involved new balance sneakers, i.e. it is a 2-ary join dependency bogner ski jackets 2016.

The formal definition is given as follows.
Let be a relational schema and let and (subsets). The multivalued dependency (which can be read as multidetermines ) holds on if, in any legal relation , for all pairs of tuples and in such that , there exist tuples and in such that
In more simple words the above condition can be expressed as follows: if we denote by the tuple having values for collectively equal to correspondingly, then whenever the tuples and exist in , the tuples and should also exist in

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.
Consider this example of a relation of university courses, the books recommended for the course, and the lecturers who will be teaching the course:
Because the lecturers attached to the course and the books attached to the course are independent of each other, this database design has a multivalued dependency; if we were to add a new book to the AHA course, we would have to add one record for each of the lecturers on that course, and vice versa. Put formally, there are two multivalued dependencies in this relation: {course}  {book} and equivalently {course}  {lecturer}. Databases with multivalued dependencies thus exhibit redundancy. In database normalization, fourth normal form requires that either every multivalued dependency X  Y is trivial or for every nontrivial multivalued dependency X  Y, X is a superkey. A multivalued dependency X Y is trivial if Y is a subset of X, or if X and Y together form the whole set of attributes of the relation.

The following also involve functional dependencies:
The above rules are sound and complete.