Mathilde Ludendorff

Mathilde Friederike Karoline Ludendorff, née Mathilde Spiess le 4 octobre 1877 à Wiesbaden et morte le 24 juin 1966 à Tutzing, était une enseignante et médecin allemande. Elle est la seconde épouse du général Erich Ludendorff — il est son troisième mari — et l’une des figures de proue du mouvement völkisch, où elle se fait remarquer pour ses idées ésotériques maillots de foot 2016. Avec Ludendorff, elle fonde le Bund für Deutsche Gotterkenntnis (Société pour la Connaissance de Dieu), un mouvement néopaïen interdit entre 1961 et 1977, mais qui existe encore de nos jours.

Mathilde Spiess, née dans la Hesse, à Wiesbaden, est la fille de Bernard Spiess, un pasteur luthérien. Après avoir d’abord suivi une formation d’enseignante dans une école de jeunes filles, elle réussit à obtenir un doctorat en neurologie et développe parallèlement une critique sévère contre les religions robe sandro. Elle abandonne officiellement sa foi dans le luthéranisme en 1913. Elle épouse le professeur Gustav Adolf von Kemnitz en 1904. Elle obtient un autre diplôme, en 1913, grâce à une thèse examinant la nature héréditaire des différences mentales entre les sexes. Veuve en 1917, elle épouse alors Edmond Georg Kleine en 1919 et divorce deux ans plus tard. Elle rencontre le général Erich Ludendorff par l’entremise de Gottfried Feder avant de l’épouser ensuite à Tutzing.
En 1921, elle termine son travail intitulé Triumph des Unsterblichkeitwillens (« Triomphe de la volonté d’immortalité ») qui examine le désir humain d’accéder à l’immortalité et, ce faisant, s’essaie à une synthèse entre philosophie et science, ce qui représente déjà la base de toute la réflexion qu’elle mettra en place par la suite. C’est ainsi le cas dans L’origine et la nature de l’âme, un ouvrage en trois volumes : Histoire de la Création, qui retrace l’histoire de l’âme depuis les débuts de l’Humanité, L’âme de l’homme, qui assimile l’âme au vœu et à la conscience, et La Création de soi, qui suggère certains moyens de « remodelage » de l’âme.
Un travail ultérieur, Der Seele Wirken und Gestalten (« L’action de l’âme et de son effet ») porte sur des thèmes similaires et est également divisé en trois livres : L’âme de l’enfant et le devoir du parent, une étude de la pédagogie, L’âme de la Nation et les modalités de sa puissance, qui explique que le Völk est une entité indivisible façonnée par ses dirigeants contre des mauvaises influences qui pourraient tuer le groupe social, et L’Histoire-Dieu des Nations, qui affirme que la culture est plus importante pour chaque peuple que la civilisation.
Elle défend également les droits des femmes et l’égalité des sexes, bien que ces questions restent très annexes dans les groupes politiques qu’elle fréquente. Hitler la cite à ce sujet, dans une discussion où elle aurait aimé briguer un poste de députée au début des années 1920 : « En 1924, les femmes politiques sont apparues chez moi : Mme von Treuenfels, Mme von Kemnitz [épouse Ludendorff], elles voulaient devenir membres du Reichstag ! C’est complètement insupportable quand il s’agit d’affaires militaires ! Une femme ne devrait même pas avoir le plus petit poste dans un groupe local du parti… je dis que 99 % des objets de délibération sont des affaires d’hommes qu’elles ne sont pas capables de juger ».
Elle est formée à la psychiatrie à Munich, aux côtés d’Emil Kraepelin et dans le cadre de ces études, développe une forte opposition à l’occultisme, attaque le travail d’Albert von Schrenck-Notzing et fait valoir que les pratiques occultes avaient été responsables du développement de maladies mentales chez un certain nombre de patients. Cette question a été abordée en détail dans Folie induite par des enseignements occultes.
Elle lance ensuite diverses attaques contre l’astrologie bogner france 2016, arguant qu’il s’agit d’une perversion juive de l’astronomie utilisée pour asservir les Allemands dans leur raisonnement. Le titre de son principal travail sur le sujet, La fraude de l’astrologie, est assez révélateur de sa position.
L’anthroposophie est également l’une des cibles de Mathilde Ludendorff, notamment dans son essai de 1933, Le miracle de la Marne. Elle y soutient que le général Helmuth Johannes Ludwig von Moltke avait perdu la première bataille de la Marne, en septembre 1914, parce qu’il était sous le contrôle de Lisbeth Seidler, une dévote de Rudolf Steiner. Elle attaque aussi les travaux de Jakob Wilhelm Hauer, un indologue qui soutient les idées Völkisch, mais insiste sur les origines indo-européennes des Allemands. Elle critique son manque de profondeur dans son essai de 1932, Der Yoga als Heilweg, et affirme en outre que les enseignements de Krishna et Bouddha avaient été adoptés par les auteurs de l’Ancien et du Nouveau Testament sacs lancel pas cher 2016, ce qui rend la religion indienne irrecevable, compte tenu de son aversion pour le christianisme. Hauer, craignant l’influence de Mathilde Ludendorff dans les cercles Völkisch, modifiera par la suite dans ses écrits certaines des idées qu’il avait auparavant défendues.
Sur un plan plus personnel, la haine de Mathilde Ludendorff à l’égard de l’occultisme découle également de son soutien au mouvement Völkisch et son désir de construire une nouvelle religion spécifiquement allemande. Ainsi, elle craint que si l’Allemagne abandonnait le christianisme, elle risquait de tomber dans des pratiques occultes déjà existantes, qui pour elle n’étaient pas plus allemandes que la foi chrétienne. Elle croyait par exemple que le dalaï-lama était sous le contrôle des Juifs.
Toutefois, en dépit de cette haine, son implication dans les mouvements Völkisch et germaniques l’amènent à collaborer avec un certain nombre de passionnés de pratiques occultes. C’est notamment le cas dans la Société de Edda de Rudolf John Gorsleben, dont elle est membre et qui inclut aussi Friedrich Schaefer, un disciple de Karl Maria Wiligut, et Otto Sigfried Reuter, un fervent partisan de l’astrologie qu’elle avait vertement condamnée.
Mathilde Ludendorff ne portait guère d’intérêt pour le christianisme positif, convaincue que les croyances chrétiennes ne pourraient jamais se réconcilier avec l’idéal qu’elle avait de l’individu aryen. Dans son livre publié en 1931, Erlösung von Jesu Christo (« Rédemption de Jésus-Christ »), elle souligne cette idée en décrivant Jésus comme un Juif prêtre qui ne serait pas mort sur ​​la croix. Elle se représente la Bible comme une fraude et en appelle à un panthéisme enraciné dans la rhétorique du sang et du sol, dans lequel l’âme de Dieu imprègne la terre comme un tout.
Dans le cadre de cette opposition entre christianisme et occultisme, elle se sert de son interprétation de la science pour développer sa propre religion, Gotterkenntnis ou « Connaissance de Dieu », qui insiste sur les notions d’héritage racial, de culture, d’économie et de justice. Cette croyance devient la religion du Tannenbergbund, l’organisation fondée par elle et son mari en 1925, qui regroupe un temps presque 100 000 « fidèles », qui rejoignent par la suite le NSDAP. Elle publie également avec son époux Le pouvoir secret des Jésuites et son déclin, bien que ce travail comporte de nombreux préjugés qui en dénaturent la véracité historique. Tandis que Mathilde Ludendorff méprise le christianisme, Erich, en dépit de sa conversion au Gotterkenntnis, conserve cependant une certaine influence du protestantisme allemand, affirmant que l’Église catholique romaine était une menace beaucoup plus importante.
Après la mort de son mari en 1937, Mathilde Ludendorff est largement mise de côté, Adolf Hitler ayant déjà depuis longtemps rompu ses relations avec feu son époux (il a cependant le droit à des funérailles nationales). Elle continue néanmoins d’exprimer des idées antisémites après la guerre et essuie donc un procès où elle est reconnue coupable, lors de la dénazification de l’Allemagne ; sa peine est réduite en 1951.
En 1955, elle fonde une école, Schule für Gotterkenntnis, afin d’enseigner ses idées païennes, même si le Bund für Deutsche Gotterkenntnis est dissous en 1961 après avoir été jugée inconstitutionnel. On remonte ses origines à 1951, où il compte jusqu’à 12 000 membres avant d’être interdit par la cour administrative de Bavière. Elle meurt cinq ans après ce jugement. En 1977, en raison d’erreurs de procédure, cette interdiction est levée et l’association perdure encore aujourd’hui, bien que contrôlée par des instances constitutionnelles.

Gregory La Cava

Gregory La Cava (March 10, 1892 – March 1, 1952) was an American film director best known for his films of the 1930s, including My Man Godfrey and Stage Door

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, which earned him nominations for Academy Award for Best Director.

He was born in Towanda, Pennsylvania and studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and the Art Students’ League.
Around 1913, he started doing odd jobs at the studio of Raoul Barré. By 1915, he was an animator on the Animated Grouch Chasers series.
Towards the end of 1915, William Randolph Hearst decided to create an animation studio to promote the comic strips printed in his newspapers. He called the new company International Film Service, and he hired La Cava to run it (for double what he was making with Barré). La Cava’s first employee was his co-worker at the Barré Studio, Frank Moser. Another was his fellow student in Chicago, Grim Natwick (later to achieve fame at Disney). As he developed more and more of Hearst’s comics into cartoon series

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, he came to put semi-independent units in charge of each, leading to the growth of individual styles.
La Cava also had the significant advantage over other studios of an unlimited budget: Hearst’s business sense completely broke down when it came to his Hearst-Vitagraph News Pictorial and the “living comic strips” they contained. La Cava’s main fault as a producer and director was that his cartoons were too clearly animated comic strips, hampered by speech balloons when rival Bray Studio was creating more effective series with original characters. He was apparently aware of this fault, and he had his animators study Charlie Chaplin films to improve their timing and characterization. But he didn’t have time to achieve very much, because in July 1918, Hearst’s bankers caught up with him and International Film Service was shut down.
Hearst still wanted his characters animated, so he licensed various studios to continue the IFS series. La Cava and most of the IFS staff got jobs with John Terry’s studio (not surprising since John Terry himself was an IFS alumnus). This only lasted a few months before Terry’s studio went out of business. The animators were immediately hired by Goldwyn-Bray (as the Bray Studio was now known), but La Cava was not, since Goldwyn-Bray had several producers of its own and La Cava was not interested in starting over 2016 prada outlet. Instead 2016 chanel online, he moved west to Hollywood.
By 1922, La Cava had become a live-action director of two-reel comedies, the direct competitor to animated films. Among the actors he directed in the silent era are:
La Cava worked his way up to feature films in the silent era, but it is for his work in sound films of the 1930s—especially comedies—that he is best known today. And though he did not always get credit, he also often had a hand in creating the screenplays for his films. Among the sound films he directed are:
His output dropped severely in the 1940s, and he only officially directed one film after 1942, Living in a Big Way (1947).
La Cava died nine days before his 60th birthday on March 1, 1952 in Malibu, California. His remains were buried at Chapel of the Pines Crematory.

Grammy Awards 1972

Die Grammy Awards 1972 fanden am 15. März des Jahres statt. Es war die 14. Verleihung des wichtigsten US-amerikanischen Musikpreises. Die Auszeichnungen erfolgten in 44 Kategorien aus 15 Feldern.
Zum ersten Mal bekamen gleich zwei Künstler einen Ehrengrammy für ihr Lebenswerk. Allerdings sollte es für längere Zeit die letzte Vergabe in dieser Sonderkategorie sein; erst 1984 wurde diese wieder eingeführt.

Single des Jahres (Record of the Year):
Album des Jahres (Album of the Year):
Song des Jahres (Song of the Year):
Bester neuer Künstler (Best New Artist):
Beste weibliche Gesangsdarbietung – Pop (Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female):
Beste männliche Gesangsdarbietung – Pop (Best Pop Vocal Performance, Male):
Beste Darbietung eines Duos oder einer Gruppe mit Gesang – Pop (Best Pop Performance By A Duo Or Group With Vocals):
Beste Instrumentaldarbietung – Pop (Best Pop Instrumental Performance):
Beste weibliche Gesangsdarbietung – R&B (Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female):
Beste männliche Gesangsdarbietung – R&B (Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male):
Beste Darbietung eines Duos oder einer Gruppe mit Gesang – Pop (Best R&B Performance By A Duo Or Group With Vocals):
Bester R&B-Song (Best R&B Song):
Beste weibliche Gesangsdarbietung – Country (Best Country Vocal Performance

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, Female):
Beste männliche Gesangsdarbietung – Country (Best Country Vocal Performance

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, Male):
Beste Countrygesangsdarbietung eines Duos oder einer Gruppe (Best Country Vocal Performance By A Duo Or Group):
Bestes Darbietung eines Countryinstrumentals (Best Country Instrumental Performance):
Bester Countrysong (Best Country Song):
Beste Jazz-Darbietung eines Solisten (Best Jazz Performance By A Soloist):
Beste Jazz-Darbietung einer Gruppe (Best Jazz Performance By A Group):
Beste Jazz-Darbietung einer Big Band (Best Jazz Performance By A Big Band):
Beste Gospel-Darbietung (ohne Soul-Gospel) (Best Gospel Performance, Other Than Soul Gospel):
Beste Soul-Gospel-Darbietung (Best Soul Gospel Performance):
Beste Sacred-Darbietung (Best Sacred Performance):
Beste Ethnofolk- oder traditionelle Folk-Aufnahme (einschließlich traditionellem Blues) (Best Ethnic Or Traditional Recording, Including Traditional Blues):
Beste Aufnahme für Kinder (Best Recording For Children):
Beste gesprochene Aufnahme (Best Spoken Word Recording):
Beste Comedy-Aufnahme (Best Comedy Recording):
Beste Musik eines Original-Cast-Show-Albums (Best Score From An Original Cast Show Album):
Beste Instrumentalkomposition (Best Instrumental Composition):
Beste Originalmusik geschrieben für einen Film oder ein Fernsehspecial (Best Original Score Written For A Motion Picture Or A Television Special):
Bestes Instrumentalarrangement (Best Instrumental Arrangement):
Bestes Arrangement mit Gesangsbegleitung (Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalists):
Bestes Album-Cover (Best Album Cover):
Bester Album-Begleittext (Best Album Notes):
Beste technische Aufnahme, ohne klassische Musik (Best Engineered Recording, Non-Classical):
Beste technische Klassikaufnahme (Best Classical Engineered Recording):
Bestes Klassik-Album des Jahres (Album Of The Year 2016 fußball trikots online, Classical):
Beste klassische Orchesterdarbietung (Best Classical Performance – Orchestra):
Beste Opernaufnahme (Best Opera Recording):
Beste Chor-Darbietung Puma Fußballschuhe auf Verkauf 2016, Klassik (Best Choral Performance, Classical):
Beste Soloinstrument-Darbietung mit Orchester (Best Classical Performance – Instrumental Soloist or Soloists With Orchestra):
Beste Soloinstrument-Darbietung ohne Orchester (Best Classical Performance – Instrumental Soloist or Soloists Without Orchestra):
Beste Kammermusik-Darbietung (Best Chamber Music Performance):
Beste klassische Solo-Gesangsdarbietung (Best Classical Vocal Soloist Performance):
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RTL 102.5

RTL 102.5 ist ein italienischer privater Hörfunksender und Fernsehsender mit Sitz in Mailand. Der Sender wird landesweit über UKW ausgestrahlt billig Puma Fußballschuhe Steckdose 2016, vorwiegend auf der Frequenz 102,5 MHz in einem Gleichwellennetz. Zudem ist er über Satellit (Eutelsat Hotbird) via DVB-S europaweit unverschlüsselt zu empfangen.

RTL 102.5 startete 1975 als Lokalsender in Bergamo unter dem Namen Radio Trasmissioni Lombarde (RTL). Ab 1988 wurde die Reichweite des Programms auf Norditalien ausgedehnt, 1990 erhielt es schließlich eine der 14 landesweiten Hörfunklizenzen.
In der Altersgruppe von 18 bis 40 Jahren erreichte der Radiosender 2007 eine wöchentliche Einschaltquote von 16,433 Mio. Zuhörern und war somit der beliebteste Radiosender Italiens.
Der Gruppe gehören auch RTL 102.5 Openspace und der Fernsehsender RTL 102 Neueste Bogner Skijacken Online Shop.5 TV nike soccer Ausrüstungen Online-Shop 2016, der im September 2007 die Formel radiovisione startete, die es ermöglicht, die Moderation und das Video zum Lied in Fernsehen zu sehen.
Im Jahr 2010 war der Sender die erste private italienische landesweit ausgestrahlte Radiostation, die die Rechte zur Ausstrahlung der Fußballspiele der WM 2010 in Südafrika erwarb.
Das Netzwerk hatte bereits für die Spiele der Europameisterschaft 2008 in Österreich und der Schweiz die Ausstrahlungsrechte erworben. Später verfügte es über die Ausstrahlungsrechte für die Spiele der Fußball-Europameisterschaft 2012 in Polen und der Ukraine. Die Spiele Italiens wurden dabei von Paolo Pacchioni und alle anderen von Gialappa Band kommentiert. Im Jahr 2011 war der RTL 102.5 der zweitmeistgehörte und im Jahr 2012 der meistgehörte Radiosender Italiens.
Das Programm orientiert sich musikalisch an einem „Hit-Radio“-Format. Es werden hauptsächlich aktuelle Hits aus der Welt und Italien gesendet nike footaball Strumpf und Kappe Auslass.

Andy Dirks

Andrew Lee Dirks (né le 24 janvier 1986 à Hutchinson, Kansas 2016 maillots de football, États-Unis) est un voltigeur des Ligues majeures de baseball sous contrat avec les Blue Jays de Toronto.

Joueur à l’Université Wichita State à Wichita, Kansas, Andy Dirks est drafté en huitième ronde par les Tigers de Detroit en 2008.
Dans les ligues mineures, il démontre tant de la puissance à l’attaque que de la vitesse autour des buts : en 2009 maillots de football 2016 sale, pour deux clubs affiliés aux Tigers maillots de foot vente, il totalise 62 points produits et 21 buts volés en 125 parties. Puis en 2010, avec les équipes de Erie (niveau AA) et Toledo (niveau AAA), il frappe 15 coups de circuit, produit 63 points et vole 22 buts en 125 rencontres.
À la mi-mai 2011, Dirks affiche une moyenne au bâton de ,328 après 34 parties chez les Mud Hens de Toledo dans la Ligue internationale, avec six doubles, six circuits et 20 points produits, lorsque Detroit décide de le rappeler avec le grand club pour la première fois lorsque Magglio Ordóñez se blesse à la cheville.
Andy Dirks fait ses débuts dans les majeures avec les Tigers de Detroit le 16 mai 2011. Inséré au champ gauche dans la formation partante de son équipe face aux Blue Jays de Toronto, il réussit son premier coup sûr au plus haut niveau face au lanceur Kyle Drabek. Il frappe son premier coup de circuit le 23 mai contre Jeremy Hellickson des Rays de Tampa Bay. Il frappe son premier circuit le 23 mai aux dépens de Jeremy Hellickson des Rays de Tampa Bay. Il termine sa première saison avec 7 circuits et 28 points produits en 78 rencontres. Il fait ses débuts en éliminatoires durant la Série de championnat de la Ligue américaine entre les Tigers et les Rangers du Texas. Il frappe un coup sûr en cinq présences au bâton et réussit un vol de but.
En 2012, il maintient une brillante moyenne au bâton de ,322 en 344 passages au bâton. En 88 matchs des Tigers, il frappe 8 circuits et récolte 35 points produits. Il participe également aux éliminatoires et réussit un coup sûr dans la Série mondiale 2012 perdue par Détroit aux mains des Giants de San Francisco.
En 2013, le voltigeur s’aligne pour 131 matchs avec les Tigers. Sa moyenne au bâton chute à ,256 alors qu’il atteint de nouveaux sommets personnels de 9 circuits et 37 points produits.
En 2014, à la suite d’un opération au dos, Dirks est limité à 14 parties des ligues mineures et aucune des Tigers sandro femme.
Le 31 octobre 2014, Dirks est réclamé au ballottage par les Blue Jays de Toronto.

Victurnien-Jean-Baptiste de Rochechouart de Mortemart

Victurnien Jean-Baptiste Marie de Rochechouart, prince of Tonnay-Charente then 9th duke of Mortemart (8 February 1752, in Everly – 4 July 1812, in Paris) was a French general and politician. He came from the Mortemart branch of the house of Rochechouart, named after the barony of Mortemart in Haute-Vienne, later raised to a marquisate and finally in December 1650 to a peer-duchy.

Victurnien-Jean-Baptiste was the second son of Jean-Victor de Rochechouart (1712–1771)

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, duke of Mortemart and of Charlotte Nathalie de Manneville gafas gucci. In October 1768 he joined the artillery school in Strasbourg. On 20 March 1774 he was made colonel of the régiment de Lorraine-Infanterie, later rising to brigadier of infantry on 1 January 1784 and maréchal-de-camp on 9 March 1788.
After taking part in the second Assembly of Notables and supporting Protestants’ claims in the parlement (where he appeared as a peer), on 24 March 1789 he was elected a noble deputy for the bailliage of Sens in the Estates General of 1789. There he supported Jacques Necker’s plans, but opposed the reforms demanded by the majority of the assembly – he notably protested against the suppression of the rights of péage and minage. He resigned on 20 April 1790 and left France the following year. He fought with the royalist army in the 1792 campaign and then moved to England, where he was welcomed by George III with “kindness” and “distinction”.
Commanding the régiment de Mortemart (a French émigré corps in British pay) robes ted baker, de Mortemart returned to continental Europe in autumn 1794 and the following year joined the force which landed on Guernsey

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. In 1796 he moved to Portugal, where he served until 1802. His regiment was disbanded at the Peace of Amiens and de Mortemart returned to France “where he lived peacefully”. Napoleon I made him a member of the conseil général for the Seine department on 26 March 1812, but he died suddenly in July that year from a vicious fever.
De Mortemart was also a man of letters, leaving behind several unedited works “of a superior quality”, such as a poem on the theme of Joseph in Egypt and a verse translation of John Milton’s Paradise Lost, along with several tales and light poems.
He married twice:

Børre Knudsen

Børre Arnold Knudsen (24 September 1937 – 17 August 2014) was a Norwegian Lutheran priest noted for his pro-life activism.
Together with Ludvig Nessa herve leger dress sale, he staged protests at abortion clinics as well as other public stunts starting in the late 1980s, and he spent time in jail for refusing to pay fines received for his protests.
Dismissed as parish priest of Balsfjord in 1983 due to his refusal to perform his official state duties in protest against new abortion laws, he helped establish the Deanery of Strandebarm in 1991, also known as the “Church of Norway in Exile” cheap soccer jacket. He was ordained as bishop by the church in 1997 until retiring in 2008 due to failing health. He was defrocked from the Church of Norway in 2001.
Knudsen was also noted as a prolific hymn poet, and two of his hymns has later been included in the Norwegian hymn book, as well as the hymn books of other churches.

Knudsen was born in Vennesla, Vest-Agder to priest Rolf Godwin Knudsen (1907–56) and Nina Lydersen (1913–95). He grew up in Langesund where his father was the local parish priest. His father was arrested and defrocked during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, causing a lasting impression on Knudsen. His mother also did resistance work, and the family was forced to move to neutral Sweden for a time during the war. They moved to Bergen in 1952, and Knudsen started studying theology in 1956. He completed his seminary education in 1966 and was ordained as a priest in the Church of Norway in 1967. He served as an assistant priest in Balsfjord, Troms from 1968 until 1971, when he was made priest of the parish there.
In 1979, when the Norwegian parliament finalized legislation allowing abortion on demand in the first trimester, Knudsen protested by refusing to perform any duties on behalf of the Norwegian state. He claimed to model his actions from the Norwegian bishops and majority of priests’ opposition to the Nazi-friendly regime in Norway during the occupation in the Second World War. He continued his duties as a minister of the church and pastor for his congregation, but did not report statistics to the state, issue birth certificates or open mail addressed to him as a civil servant. He neither accepted his salary from the state.
Minister of Church and Education Einar Førde dismissed Knudsen from his post for neglecting his duties, but Knudsen refused to leave his pastoral duties. His active congregation insisted that he was still their pastor and urged him not to leave. Knudsen was sued by the state, but won the first round. He eventually lost the case on appeal to the Supreme Court of Norway in 1983. The Supreme Court decision held that the state part of the church office could not be separated from the ecclesial or spiritual part of it within a State Church. Knudsen was replaced as parish priest in Balsfjord, but most of his active congregation followed him in establishing an independent local elect congregation in the tradition of the Norwegian Lutheran church.
Two other priests, Ludvig Nessa and Per Kørner, joined him in his protest and were also terminated from their posts and defrocked. In 1987, these three started non-violent protests at abortion clinics, turning up in traditional ministerial robes and singing psalms. They also performed other public stunts such as symbolic burials of small coffins, and pouring blood over themselves outside the Norwegian parliament. They would continue until they were brought in by the police and received fines. Knudsen was jailed for three weeks in 1994 for not having paid his fines received for protests at abortion clinics. The three established the Deanery of Strandebarm in 1991, proclaiming it the “Church of Norway in Exile”. Knudsen was ordained bishop of the church on 6 April 1997 at a sermon in Kautokeino, after two new priests had joined the cause the same year. Knudsen was finally defrocked from the Church of Norway in 2001

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. He resigned as “anti-bishop” in 2008 due to failing health.
Knudsen was a noted hymn poet, and wrote hymn poetry in the traditions of Petter Dass, Thomas Kingo and Grundtvig. Some of his hymns were included in the official hymn books of other churches, and he initially refused to have them admitted in the Norwegian hymn book, although two have later been included.
Knudsen wrote a large amount of hymn poetry, and collections of some of his sermons have been printed in books and booklets. His hymns point to Chalcedonian Christology, and to a high interpretation of the sacraments. His hymns are mainly edited in Det Hellige Bryllup, (Oslo 1976) Sangverk for Den Norske kirke, (Oslo 1980), and may be found in the Norwegian 1998 Roman Catholic Hymn book as well as in other collections.[citation needed]
Knudsen married Ragnhild Knudsen (née Iden) in 1964. They had five children together.
A documentary about Knudsen and his life premiered at Norwegian cinemas in March 2014 titled “En prest og en plage”, which portrayed the aging Knudsen in a close-up personal and somewhat more sympathetic light. Considered a generally somewhat more respected figure among the Norwegian anti-abortionists, some long-time critics of Knudsen voiced their respect for his dedication and for his hymn poetry after his death.
He was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 2004, and spent his last winters in Altea, Spain. Knudsen died in 2014 at his home in Mestervik in Balsfjord casual dresses, Troms.

Sitalk Peak

Sitalk Peak (Vrah Sitalk \’vr&h si-‘talk\) is a rocky peak of elevation 600 m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated at the end of a side ridge rinning northwards from Great Needle Peak, and linked to a rocky part of that ridge featuring Tutrakan Peak to the south by a 100-metre long ice-covered saddle. Surmounting Huron Glacier and its tributaries to the north, east and west. The peak is named after the Thracian King Sitalk, 431-424 BC.
The peak is located at 62°38′49.7″S 60°03′38″W / 62.647139°S 60.06056°W / -62.647139; -60 juicy couture sale.06056Coordinates: 62°38′49.7″S 60°03′38″W / 62 cheap bags sale.647139°S 60.06056°W / -62.647139 tory burch sale; -60.06056, which is 700 m north of Tutrakan Peak, 750 m northeast of Plana Peak, 1

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.46 km east of Nestinari Nunataks, 1.93 km southeast of Kukeri Nunataks and 1.34 km west-southwest of Intuition Peak (Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05, and mapping in 2005 and 2009).
This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.

Shia Islam in Lebanon

Shia Islam in Lebanon has a history of more than a millennium. According to CIA study, Lebanese Shia Muslims constitute 27% of Lebanon’s population of approximately 4.3 million, which means they amount to 1,160,000. According to other sources the Lebanese Shia Muslims constitute approximately 40% of the entire population (or 1.6 million out of a total population of 4 million).
Most of its adherents live in the northern and western area of the Beqaa Valley, Southern Lebanon and Beirut’s southern suburbs. The great majority of Shia Muslims in Lebanon are Twelvers, with an Alawite minority numbering in the tens of thousands in north Lebanon. Few Ismailis remain in Lebanon today, though the quasi-Muslim Druze sect, which split from Ismailism around a millennium ago, has hundreds of thousands of adherents.
Under the terms of an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, Shias are the only sect eligible for the post of Speaker of Parliament.

The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a blend of both indigenous Phoenician elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years converse online shop. In a 2013 interview the lead investigator, Pierre Zalloua, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions:”Lebanon already had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, and religions came as layers of paint on top. There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries significantly more Phoenician than another.”
Genealogical DNA testing has shown that 24.8% of Lebanese Muslims (non-Druze) belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup J1. Although there is common ancestral roots, these studies show some difference was found between Muslims and non-Muslims in Lebanon, of whom only 17.1% have this haplotype. As haplogroup J1 finds its putative origins in the Arabian peninsula, this likely means that the lineage was introduced by Arabs beginning at the time of the 7th century Muslim conquest of the Levant and has persisted among the Muslim population ever since. On the other hand, only 4.7% of all Lebanese Muslims belong to haplogroup R1b, compared to 9.6% of Lebanese Christians. Modern Muslims in Lebanon thus do not seem to have a significant genetic influence from the Crusaders, who probably introduced this common Western Europen marker to the extant Christian populations of the Levant when they were active in the region from 1096 until around the turn of the 14th century. Haplogroup J2 is also a significant marker in throughout Lebanon (29%). This marker found in many inhabitants of Lebanon, regardless of religion, signals pre-Arab descendants, including the Phoenicians. These genetic studies show us there is no significant differences between the Muslims and non-Muslims of Lebanon.
A Shia emirate was established in Keserwan a mountain region overlooking the coastal area north of Beirut, in which they prospered for the next five centuries.[citation needed] The growth of Shia Islam in Lebanon stopped around the late thirteenth century, and subsequently Shia communities decreased in size. Keserwan began to lose its Shia character under the Assaf Sunni Turkomans whom the Mamluks appointed as overlords of the area in 1306. The process intensified around 1545 when the Maronites started migrating to Keserwan and Jbeil, encouraged by the Assafs, who sought to use them as a counterweight to the Shia Himada sheikhs who reemerged in Kesrewan in the 16th century. When in 1605 the Druze emir Fakhr al-Din Ma’n II took over Kesrewan, he entrusted its management to the Khazin Maronite family. The Khazins gradually colonized Kesrewan, purchasing Shia lands and founding churches and monasteries. They emerged as the predominant authority in the region at the expense of the Shia Hamedeh clan. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Khazins owned Kesrewan and only a few Shia villages survived. During the time of the Ottoman Empire the Shias suffered religious persecution and were often forced to flee their homes in search of refuge in the South. One example is the Lebanese city of Tripoli, which had formerly had a Shia Muslim majority. Many Lebanese Shia are rumored to have concealed their religious sect and acted as Sunni Muslims in fear of persecution. It is also rumored[by whom?] that some of the Shia permanently adopted the Sunni Muslim sect. The Ottomans and Druze were well allied and a Druze family seized power of Tripoli. Maronites who were persecuted by the Ottoman’s and the Druze, sought refuge amongst the newly relocated Shia population in the South. Jezzine, once famously known as a Shia capital in Lebanon juicy couture outlet, is now known as a major Christian city in the South. The Shias withdrew further south and eventually had to abandon even Jezzine, which until the mid-eighteenth century had functioned as a center of Shia learning in Lebanon.
The growth of Shia Islam in Lebanon stopped around the late thirteenth century, and subsequently Shia communities decreased in size. This development may be traced to 1291, when the Sunni Mamluks sent numerous military expeditions to subdue the Shias of Keserwan, a mountain region overlooking the coastal area north of Beirut. The first two Mamluk expeditions were defeated by the Shia in Keserwan. The third expedition, on the other hand, was overwhelmingly large and was able to defeat the Shia in Keserwan; many were brutally slaughtered, some fled through the mountains to northern Beqaa while others fled moving through the Beqaa plain, to a new safe haven in Jezzine. Keserwan began to lose its Shia character under the Assaf Sunni Turkomans whom the Mamluks appointed as overlords of the area in 1306. The process intensified around 1545 when the Maronites started migrating to Keserwan and Jbeil, encouraged by the Assafs, who sought to use them as a counterweight to the Shia Himada sheikhs who reemerged in Kesrewan. When in 1605 the Druze emir Fakhr al-Din Ma’n II took over Kesrewan, he entrusted its management to the Khazin Maronite family. The Khazins gradually colonized Kesrewan, purchasing Shia lands and founding churches and monasteries. They emerged as the predominant authority in the region at the expense of the Shia Hamedeh clan. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Khazins owned Kesrewan and only a few Shia villages survived.
During the time of the Ottoman Empire, the Shias suffered religious persecution and were often forced to flee their homes in search of refuge in the South. In response to the growth of Shiism, the Ottoman Empire put Shias to the sword in Anatolia. Hundreds of thousands of Shias were massacred in the Ottoman Empire, including the Alevis in Turkey, the Alawis in Syria and the Shi’a of Lebanon. One example is the Lebanese city of Tripoli, which had formerly had a Shia Muslim majority. Many Lebanese Shia are rumored to have concealed their religious sect and acted as Sunni Muslims in fear of persecution. It is also rumored[by whom?] that some of the Shia permanently adopted the Sunni Muslim sect. The Ottomans and Druze were well allied and a Druze family seized power of Tripoli. Maronites who were persecuted by the Ottoman’s and the Druze, sought refuge amongst the newly relocated Shia population in the South. Jezzine, once famously known as a Shia capital in Lebanon, is now known as a major Christian city in the South. The Shias withdrew further south and eventually had to abandon even Jezzine, which until the mid-eighteenth century had functioned as a center of Shia learning in Lebanon. The traditional accounts of Shia “persecution” in Lebanon, however, which are largely based on family legends, are seriously called into question by the Ottoman documentation available in the state archives in Istanbul or local sharia archives in Tripoli. According to these, leading Shia families such as the Hamadas in Tripoli, the Harfushes in the Beqaa or the Ali al-Saghirs in Jabal ‘Amil were co-opted into the Ottoman system of government, serving as tax farmers (multezim) over huge areas and enjoying other government offices (sancak-beylik governorships, etc.) in the region.
Although the Jabal ‘Amil enjoyed a degree of autonomy in the eighteenth century under the leader of the Ali al-Saghirs, Nasif al-Nassar, and the Arab leader of northern Palestine, Zahir al-Umar, this ended with the Ottoman appointment of Ahmad al-Jazzar as governor of Sidon province (1775–1804). Jazzar crushed the military power of the Shia clan leaders and burned the libraries of the religious scholars using the Druze tribes established in the Shouf, mainly the strong Nakad family, allied to the Maan. He established a centralized administration in the Shia areas and brought their revenues and cash crops under his domain. By the late eighteenth century, the Shias of the Jabal ‘Amil lost their independent spirit and adopted an attitude of political defeat. Al-Jezzar was nicknamed “the butcher” and a big population of the Shia were killed under his rule in Lebanon.
During most of the Ottoman period, the Shia largely maintained themselves as ‘a state apart’, although they found common ground with their fellow Lebanese, the Maronites; this may have been due to the persecutions both sects faced. They maintained contact with the Safavid dynasty of Persia, where they helped establish Shia Islam as the state religion of Persia during the Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism. Since most of the population embraced Sunni Islam and since an educated version of Shiism was scarce in Iran at the time, Ismail imported a new Shia Ulema corps from traditional Shiite centers of the Arabic speaking lands, such as Jabal Amil (of Southern Lebanon), Bahrain and Southern Iraq in order to create a state clergy. Ismail offered them land and money in return for loyalty. These scholars taught the doctrine of Twelver Shiism and made it accessible to the population and energetically encouraged conversion to Shiism. To emphasize how scarce Twelver Shiism was then to be found in Iran, a chronicler tells us that only one Shia text could be found in Ismail’s capital Tabriz. Thus it is questionable whether Ismail and his followers could have succeeded in forcing a whole people to adopt a new faith without the support of the Arab Shiite scholars.
These contacts further angered the Ottoman Sultan, who had already viewed them as religious heretics. The Sultan was frequently at war with the Persians, as well as being, in the role of Caliph, the leader of the majority Sunni community. Shia Lebanon, when not subject to political repression, was generally neglected, sinking further and further into the economic background. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the Comte de Volmy was to describe the Shia as a distinct society.[citation needed]
The Shias in Lebanon were the first to resist the French occupation. Following the creation of the French mandate, armed rebels led by Adham Khanjar and Sadiq Hamzeh attacked French positions in Southern Lebanon, including an unsuccessful attempt on French High Commissioner Henri Gouraud in which Khanjar was captured and later executed.
Shia Twelvers in Lebanon refers to the Shia Muslim Twelver community with a significant presence in north Lebanon (Kesrawan and Batroun), the South Lebanon, the Beqaa and South Beirut suburbs.
The jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire was merely nominal in the Lebanon. Baalbek in the 18th century was really under the control of the Metawali, which also refers to the Shia Twelvers. Mutawili or mutawalli is also the name of a trustee in Islamic waqf-system.
Seven Shia Twelver (Metawali) villages that were reassigned from French Greater Lebanon to the British Mandate of Palestine in a 1924 border-redrawing agreement were depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and repopulated with Jews. The seven villages are Qadas, Nabi Yusha, al-Malikiyya, Hunin, Tarbikha, Abil al-Qamh, and Saliha.
In addition, the Shia Twelvers in Lebanon have close links to the Syrian Shia Twelvers.
There are an estimated 40,000 to 120,000 Alawites in Lebanon, where they have lived since at least the 16th century. They are recognized as one of the 18 official Lebanese sects, and due to the efforts of their leader Ali Eid, the Taif Agreement of 1989 gave them two reserved seats in the Parliament. Lebanese Alawites live mostly in the Jabal Mohsen neighbourhood of Tripoli, and in 15 villages in the Akkar region, and are mainly represented by the Arab Democratic Party. Bab al-Tabbaneh, Jabal Mohsen clashes between pro-Syrian Alawites and anti-Syrian Sunnis have haunted Tripoli for decades jordan shoes cheap.
Ismailism, or “Sevener Shi’ism”, is a branch of Shia Islam which emerged in 765 from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad. Ismailis hold that Isma’il ibn Jafar was the true seventh imam, and not Musa al-Kadhim as the Twelvers believe. Ismaili Shi’ism also differs doctrinally from Imami Shi’ism, having beliefs and practices that are more esoteric and maintaining seven pillars of faith rather than five pillars and ten ancillary precepts.
Though perhaps somewhat better established in neighbouring Syria, where the faith founded one of its first da’wah outposts in the city of Salamiyah (the supposed resting place of the Imam Isma’il) in the 8th century, it has been present in what is now Lebanon for centuries. Early Lebanese Ismailism showed perhaps an unusual propensity to foster radical movements within it, particularly in the areas of Wadi al-Taym, adjoining the Beqaa valley at the foot of Mount Hermon, and Jabal Shuf, in the highlands of Mount Lebanon.
The syncretic beliefs of the Qarmatians, typically classed as an Ismaili splinter sect with Zoroastrian influences, spread into the area of the Beqaa valley and possibly also Jabal Shuf starting in the 9th century. The group soon became widely vilified in the Islamic world for its armed campaigns across throughout the following decades, which included slaughtering Muslim pilgrims and sacking Mecca and Medina—and Salamiyah. Other Muslim rulers soon acted to crush this powerful heretical movement. In the Levant, the Qarmatians were ordered to be stamped out by the ruling Fatimid, themselves Ismailis and from whom the lineage of the modern Nizari Aga Khan is claimed to descend. The Qarmatian movement in the Levant was largely extinguished by the turn of the millennium.
The semi-divine personality of the Fatimid caliph in Ismailism was elevated further in the doctrines of a secretive group which began to venerate the caliph Hakim as the embodiment of divine unity. Unsuccessful in the imperial capital of Cairo, they began discreetly proselytising around the year 1017 among certain Arab tribes in the Levant. The Ismailis of Wadi al-Taym and Jabal Shuf were among those who converted before the movement was permanently closed off a few decades later to guard against outside prying by mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims, who often viewed their doctrines as heresy. This deeply esoteric group became known as the Druze, who in belief, practice, and history have long since become distinct from Ismailis proper. Druzes constitute 5% of the modern population of Lebanon and still have a strong demographic presence in their traditional regions within the country to this day.
Due to official persecution by the Sunni Zengid dynasty that stoked escalating sectarian clashes with Sunnis, many Ismailis in the regions of Damascus and Aleppo are said to have fled west during the 12th century. Some settled in the mountains of Lebanon, while others settled further north along the coastal ridges in Syria, where the Alawites had earlier taken refuge—and where their brethren in the Assassins were cultivating a fearsome reputation as they staved off armies of Crusaders and Sunnis alike for many years.
Once far more numerous and widespread in many areas now part of Lebanon, the Ismaili population has largely vanished over time. It has been suggested that Ottoman-era persecution might have spurred them to leave for elsewhere in the region, though there is no record or evidence of any kind of large exodus.
Ismailis were originally included as one of five officially-defined Muslim sects in a 1936 edict issued by the French Mandate governing religious affairs in the territory of Greater Lebanon, alongside Sunnis, Twelver Shias, Alawites, and Druzes. However, Muslims collectively rejected being classified as divided, and so were left out of the law in the end. Ignored in a post-independence law passed in 1951 that defined only Judaism and Christian sects as official, Muslims continued under traditional Ottoman law, within the confines of which small communities like Ismailis and Alawites found it difficult to establish their own institutions.
The Aga Khan IV made a brief stop in Beirut on 4 August 1957 while on a global tour of Nizari Ismaili centres, drawing an estimated 600 Syrian and Lebanese followers of the religion to the Beirut Airport in order to welcome him. In the mid-1980s, several hundred Ismailis were thought to still live in a few communities scattered across several parts of Lebanon. Though they are nominally counted among the 18 officially-recognised sects under modern Lebanese law jimmy choo pas cher, they currently have no representation in state functions and continue to lack personal status laws for their sect, which has led to increased conversions to established sects to avoid the perpetual inconveniences this produces.
War in the region has also caused pressures on Lebanese Ismailis. In the 2006 Lebanon War, Israeli warplanes bombed the factory of the Maliban Glass company in the Beqaa valley on 19 July. The factory was bought in the late 1960s by the Madhvani Group under the direction of Ismaili entrepreneur Abdel-Hamid al-Fil after the Aga Khan personally brought the two into contact. It had expanded over the next few decades from an ailing relic to the largest glass manufacturer in the Levant, with 300 locally hired workers producing around 220,000 tons of glass per day. Al-Fil closed the plant down on 15 July just after the war broke out to safeguard against the deaths of workers in the event of such an attack, but the damage was estimated at a steep 55 million US dollars, with the reconstruction timeframe indefinite due to instability and government hesitation.
Lebanese Shia Muslims are concentrated in the south Beirut and its southern suburbs, northern and western area of the Beqaa Valley, Southern Lebanon, Tripoli and Akkar region.
The last census in Lebanon in 1932 put the numbers of Shias at 20% of the population (155,000 of 791,700). A study done by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1985 put the numbers of Shias at 41% of the population (919,000 of 2,228,000).
According to another CIA study, the Shia Muslims constitutes 27% of Lebanons’s population of approximately 4.3 million, which means they amount to 1,160,000 as of 2012.
According to other sources, the Lebanese Shia Muslims have become the single largest religious community in Lebanon, constituting approximately 40 percent of the entire population (or 1.6 million out of a total population of 4 million).
These are notable Lebanese Shia Muslim families:

Warren Berger (writer)

Warren Berger (born October 20, 1958) is an American journalist and host of the website “A More Beautiful Question,” which is the title of his latest book, published by Bloomsbury in March 2014. Berger has written five other books (two as co-author) and numerous articles, primarily on innovation, design, mass media, and popular culture.

Warren Berger grew up in Whitestone, New York, the youngest of seven children. He graduated from Syracuse University’s S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications in 1980. After working as a newspaper journalist in Dallas, Berger moved back to New York and worked for several years as a magazine editor for CBS.
In 1990, Berger founded his independent writing business, with The New York Times as one of the main outlets for his writing. He wrote a business column for the Sunday Times, and also contributed culture articles regularly to the Arts & Leisure section as well as The New York Times Magazine. His feature stories also appeared in GQ 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online, The Los Angeles Times Magazine, New York magazine, Reader’s Digest, and Business 2.0. He served as a contributing editor at Wired magazine from 1999 to 2001.
Simultaneously, Berger pursued his interest in creativity in advertising by writing many articles for Ad Age’s Creativity, Communication Arts, Graphis, and Metropolis. In the mid-1990s, he formed an association with The One Club for Art & Copy, helping them launch the bimonthly publication ONE, about creativity in advertising, and then in 2007 launching the quarterly ONE: DESIGN. In 2001, he wrote the book Advertising Today, published by Phaidon Press. The book was included on Barnes & Noble’s best books of the year list, and was later included in a list of the “50 all time best books about media” compiled by The Independent of London.
Berger’s current project, A MORE BEAUTIFUL QUESTION: The Power of Inquiry to Spark Breakthrough Ideas, (Bloomsbury), is an examination of the ways deep questioning can lead to innovation and change, and how we can get better at doing it in both business and daily life. For the 250-page book, Berger interviewed leaders at dozens of companies such as Google, Netflix, IDEO, and airbnb, as well as hundreds of entrepreneurs, educators, artists, social activists, and basement tinkerers about the role of questioning in their successes. (See reviews and “Best of 2014” list citations for A More Beautiful Question.) Berger’s website “AMoreBeautifulQuestion.com” features hundreds of articles, videos, studies, and links about the powerful role of questioning in business, education, and daily life. Berger also speaks on the topics of innovation and questioning at businesses and conferences around the world Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016.
Berger’s interest in questioning grew out of his 2009 book GLIMMER (published by The Penguin Press in the U.S.; Random House in Canada and Europe), which explored how designers think and innovate. Glimmer took readers behind-the-scenes into studios such as IDEO 2016 Adidas fotball utstyr online, Pentagram, and Smart Design, and schools such as Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) and the Stanford Graduate School of Product Design (the d.school), as well as profiling many international design thinkers including Marianne Cusato, Dean Kamen, Yves Behar, Brian Collins rabatt Puma fotballsko cleats utløp 2016, Paula Scher, Stefan Sagmeister, Tim Brown, and Bruce Mau, who collaborated at length with Berger on the project. The book examines, up-close, the ways in which designers approach problems, utilize unique tools and techniques, and ultimately arrive at solutions, and shows how non-designers can apply these principles in their daily lives.
Berger currently resides in Mount Kisco, New York, with his wife, editor/webmaster Laura E. Kelly.
The Best Business Stories of the Year (2001; Pantheon) (ISBN 978-0375725005)